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中國家具의 意匠에 關한 硏究

中國家具의 意匠에 關한 硏究
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A STUDY ON THE DESIGN OF CHINESE FURNITURE : with priority given to Ming Chling dynasty
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대학원 응용미술학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
中國이라는 巨大한 國家는 이와 隣接한 우리나라의 衣,食,住를 비롯한 宗敎,思想,學問등 文化 發展에 莫大한 影響을 주었다. 우리의 傳統 家具를 보다 잘 알기 위해서는 무엇보다도 우리 家具에 미친 中國家具에 대한 硏究가 先行되어야 할 것으로 생각된다. 이에 本稿는 中國家具가 形成되어진 要因과 時代에 따른 變遷過程을 살펴 보았다. 中國의 家屋은 大部分 벽돌로 지으며 房바닥도 벽돌을 깔아 地面으로 부터의 冷氣와 濕氣를 막기위해 일찍부터 倚,牀위에서 起居하였다. 中國은 土地가 廣闊하여 따뜻한 南쪽과 추운 北쪽 地方으로 나누이고 자연 室內 生活樣式을 달리하게 되었다. 卽 北方은 房의 一部에 낮은 壇을 쌓아 그 밑에 불을 땔수있게 된 一種의 溫突 形式을 취한 K'ang(?)이라고 부르는 寢牀위에서 生活했으며, 南쪽에서는 牀이나 榻등의 寢臺를 使用했다. 따라서 ?이나 牀 위에서 使用되는牀幾, ?廚등의 座式用 家具와 地面에 놓고 使用되는 椅子, 卓子, 櫃등의立式生活 家具의 두 種類가 存在한다. 漢代에서는 特殊 支配階級을 除外한 一般人들은 자리 ( mat ) 위에서 生活하였고 一部 特殊層에서만 牀을 使用했다. 이러한 生活樣式이 魏·晋時代를 거쳐 唐代에 이르러 椅子生活로 普遍化 되었다. 中國家具의 原形은 殷,周時代까지 遡及되어 올라가며 家具를 裝飾한 文樣들도 先史時代로 부터 있었던 文樣들이靑銅器나 漆器에 表現되면서 점차 洗練된 文樣이 使用되었다. 六朝, 唐代에 이르러 佛敎의 普及과 페르샤, 아라비아 등지의 西方文物의 輪入으로 華麗한 裝飾文樣이 나타난다. 이러한 裝飾文樣들이 明, 淸代에 이르면 점차 吉祥的인 意味를 띠운 文樣들이 流行되며 家具에 나타난 文樣들로 如意頭紋, 眼象紋, 卍字紋, 七寶紋, 龍紋등의 吉祥的 意味를 內包한 것들이다. 中國家具를 製作하는 데에는 可能한 한 못을 使用하지 않고 장부구멍에 의한 장부맞춤을 基本 構造로 하였으며 裝飾文樣이 없는 家具들은 大部分 家具面을 둥근모의 배밀이로 裝飾하였음이 特徵이다. ;The vast old China has had great influence on the development of religion, thoughts, learning and culture along with the clothes, food and shelter of Korea, its neighbor. To understand our traditional furniture better, we should first study that of China which has influenced ours. Here, this paper intends to explain the factors that have made Chinese furniture what it is and the process of change in various periods. Most of the Chinese houses have been built of brick and they have also laid brick on the floor of their room and have lived on chair or 'ch'uang' (牀) to cut off the cold and moisture from the ground. China is so vast in its area that the mode of house life in the warmer southern part is different from that in the colder northern part. In the northern district, they put up a low platform on some part of a room so as to heat the room from under it and have had a rest on the platform, a kind of 'ondol', named 'K'ang'(?). In the south, whereas, they used bed such as 'Ch'uang'(牀) or 'T'a'(榻). This resulted in the two kinds of furniture: a seating style, such as 'K'ang-Chi' (?幾), 'K'ang-Ch'u'(?廚), used on the 'k'ang'(?) or 'Ch'uang' (牀) and a standing style, such such as chair, tabIe,'Kuei' (櫃), Placed on the floor. During Han-dynasty, except the particular ruling class, the common people lived on the mat, with a few favored class living on the 'ch'uang'(牀). This mode of living was developed into popularized use of chair in T'ang dynasty through both Wei and Jin (魏晋) periods. The original pattern of Chinese furniture dates back to Shang (段), Chou(周) period and the decoration figures, from pre-history age, were also refined gradually, being represented on bronze or lacquer ware, ' Around T'ang(唐) period, bright decoration figures appear through the spread of Buddhism and the import of Occidental culture of Persia and Arabia. Since the beginning of Ming (明), Ch'ing (淸) period, such decoration figures took on the meaning of good auspice and were popularized. These figures involve 'you-i-du figure' (如意頭紋), 'an-sang figure' (眼象紋), '卍 figure', 'chil-bo figure (七寶紋)and 'yong figure' (龍紋), all of which carry good auspice with them. In manufacturing furniture, they used as few nails as possible. Instead, they basically adopted the system of the miter, mortise and tenon join. While, it is a most remarkable characteristic that most of the furniture with no decoration figures were finished with the beading.
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