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- JOHN KEATS
- CHUNG, ON MO
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- 대학원 영어영문학과
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- Kim, sun sook
- A. The Origin and Development of the Ode.
The original meaning of the Ode is "a chant, a poem arranged to be a division of the Greek melos or song." Greek melos was developed in two ways. On one hand of them, by Alcaeus(fl. about 600 B.C.), Anacreon(572?-?488 B.C.), and Sappho(fl, about 600 B.C), came close to what modern critics know as lyric. On the other hand, the choir-song in which the poet spoke for himself, but was always supported or interpreted by a chorus, led up to what is known as the Ode.
The ode was built on a set of themes and. responses and. sung by divided choirs, half the singers intoning the strophe(turn), the other half replying with the antistrophe(counterturn) and both uniting with the epode(after~song).
It was Alcmen(fl. 7th century B.C.), who first gave to his poems a strophic arrangement, and the strophe has come to be essential in an Ode. The Greek pattern of the Ode, gradually losing its musical accompaniment, came to be recited without chorus, and the regulation of extremely complicated rhyme-scheme and metre was introduced. But this regulation was not clearly set up.
Stesi-chorus(640?-?550 B.C.), Ibycus(6th cen. B, C), and Simonides of Ceos(late 6th cen. - early 5th cen. B.C.) led the way to two great masters of the Ode among the ancients; Pindar( 522?-443 B.C.) and Baccylides(5th cen. B.C.). The form and verse-arrangement of Pindar's great lyrics have regulated the type of the heroic Ode. They are consciously composed in very elaborate measure. The name of Pindar is frequently referred to by the critics as the writer of the strictly regular pattern of the Greek Ode, and. actually Pindaric pattern is used as the regular pattern of the Ode. The Latins made no serious attempt to imitate the Odes of Pindar. The Ode was returned to the lyrical form of Sappho and Alcaeus by the Romans. This was exemplified by Horace(65-8 B.C.) and Catulus(84-54 B.C.).
The earliest modern. writer who perceived the value of the antique Ode was Ronsard, French poet(1524-1585). He attempted to recover the fire and volume of Pindar. The poets of the French Pleiade School recognized in the Ode one of the forms of verse with which french prosody should be enriched. But in their use of crudely introduced Greek words and in their quantitative experiments they offended. the genius of the French language The Ode died in France almost as rapidly as it had come to life. Early in the nineteenth century the form was resumed, and they have the Odes composed between 1817 and 1824 by Victor Hugo(1802-1885), Alphonse Lamartine(1790-1869), and. others.
Pindar's Odes attained
the greatest fame because of their ingenuity, and his served as models for the first English expressions of that form.
The earliest Odes in English were Spenser's(1552~1599) "Epithalamium" and "Prothalamium". Ben Jonson(1573?-1637) had called some of his irregular rhymed stanzas "Odes" and some of his disciples: particularly Randolphe(1605-1675), Cartwright(1611-1643), and Herrick(1591-1674) followed him. John Milton(1608-1674) had approximated the form in his "Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity" written in 1629. But Abraham Cowley(1618-1667) was the first one who introduced into English poetry the Ode consciously built up on a solemn theme and as definitely as possible on the ancient Greek pattern. He published. his Pindaric Odes in 1656. In 1705 William Congreve(1670-1729) Published a "Discourse on the Pindarique Ode" and corrected Cowley's critical error that Pindar's Ode is
a lofty and tempestuous piece of indefinite poetry, conducted 'without sail or oar' in whatever direction the enthusiasm of the poet chose to take it.
However, Cowley introduced. "irregular" Ode form, and it has become a recognized. form in English poetry. The irregular Ode form is different from the classical pattern. It discards strophe, antistrophe, and epode, and it is not bounded by the limitation of shape or size, rhyme-scheme, or metre. The mention might be made here to the so-called "Horatian Ode", and Ode built on four-line and six-line stanzas which actually not a formal Ode at all.
Possibly the best of this type is Andrew Marvell's(1621-1678) "An Horatian Ode upon Cromwell's Return from Ireland", although Thomas Gray's "On a Distant Prospect of Eton College" is better known.
The attempts of Gilbert West(1703-1756) to explain the prosody of Pinder inspired Gray to write his "The Bard" and "Progrese of Poesy" which restored the true form. Gray's Pindaric Odes are divided into three sections, each of which contains three stanzas: the strophe, the antistrophe, and the epode. We can see the true form of the Pindaric Ode by examining his "The Progress of Poesy".
William Collins(1721-1759) marks the second period of the English Ode, and the third period is associated with John Keats(1795-1821). Wordsworth(1770-1850), Coleridge(1772-1843), and Tennyson(1809-1892) wrote irregular Odes. Shelley(1792-1822) tried to recover the pure Greek pattern, but his want of a through knowledge of the principle of the pattern brought a blemish on his form. Wordsworth wrote his "Ode to Immortality" in an irregular form and "Ode to Duty" in a regular pattern. Coleridge's "To France" is the finest irregular Ode. Shelley is noteworthy with his "To the West Wind." and "To a Skylark", and Byron( 1788-1824)with his "The Isles of Greece". Thomas Hood(1799-1845) wrote Odes of musical effect influenced by Keats. In the middle of the nineteenth century Coventry Patmore(1835-1896) published a volume of irregular Odes. Swinburne(1835-1909) wrote elaborate lyrics.
He cultivated the Greek form, and some of his political Odes follow very closely the type of Baccylides and Pindar. Neither Sir William Watson(1858-1935) nor Laurence Binyon(1869-1943) adopted the Pindaric form.
Edmund Gosse gives a definition of the Ode to the Encyclopaedia Britannica as "a form of stately and elaborate lyrical verse."
The Ode is defined again as
a rimed(rarely unrimed) lyric, often in the form of an address; generally dignified. or exalted in subject, feeling, and style, but sometimes(in earlier use) simple and familiar(though less so than a song).
These are the definitions proper to the principle of the Ode in the modern sense.
Today the Ode can scarcely be recognized by its form, It may be quite Horatian, loosely stanzaic, or wholly irregular, Therefore, our study of the Ode is concerned not only with the strict form of the regular Ode but the lyrics which are
supposed to express the feelings of the poet in the pressure of high excitement, and taking an irregular form from rhythm for its varied utterance.
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