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玉樓夢의 構造的 分析

Title
玉樓夢의 構造的 分析
Other Titles
A Structural Analysis on the Novel "Okroo-Mong" (a synopsis)
Authors
金相嬉
Issue Date
1974
Department/Major
대학원 국어국문학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
李相澤
Abstract
우리의 古代小說이 大部分 說話를 母體로 하고 있기 때문에 古代小說作品에서 說話性 내지 說話的 要素(Motif)를 抽出, 分析해내는 作業은 小說硏究의 手段이며 過程으로서 小說間의 比較, 飜案, 根源說話의 發見, 說話의 小說化過程等의 硏究에 重要한 구실을 하게 될 것이다. 따라서 筆者는 우리 古代小說作品中 <玉樓夢>을 택하여, Motif에 의한 具體的인 分析을 通하여 說話的要素의 抽出과 그것이 갖는 意味를 찾아보려 한다. 먼저 〈玉樓夢〉의 Motif에 의한 構造分析에 앞서 從來의 〈玉樓夢〉硏究槪觀을 通하여 이 作品이 갖는 우리 古代小說史上의 位置를 알아보았고, 實際 〈玉樓夢〉을 分析하는데 있어서 說話文學에서 云謂되는 Episode 및 Motif의 槪念을 借用한바, 그것들에 依한 話話分類를 試圖한 外國의 경우와 우리나라의 경우로 나누어 살펴보았다. 여기에서 特히 本稿에 많은 示唆와 參考가 된 Stith Thompson의 Motif-Index를 대강 소개하였다. 그런데 說話文學에서의 Motif 및 Episode의 槪念은 小說과 說話가 갖는 構造的 特殊性의 差異 때문에, 〈玉樓夢〉의 構造를 分析하는데에 그대로 借用할 수 없었다. 따라서 다음과 같은 分析方法을 取하였다. 즉 J. L. Fischer의 Episode의 槪念(두개 이상의 葛藤을 지닌 複合構成의 民譚에 있어 하나의 葛藤의 發端에서 解消까지를 말한다)에 基礎한, 이야기 展開上의 한 段落(〈玉樓夢〉의 主人公 창곡을 中心으로 한)으로서의 構成要素群을 이 作品에의 Episode로 잡고 그 Episode를 이루는 構成要素中에 Motif가 될 수 있는 要素를 대상으로, Stith Thompson의 Motif-Index에 依據 分析하였다. 1 結果, (1) 謫降 (2) 誕生 (3) 結緣 - (가) 홍랑과의 結緣 (나) 尹小姐와의 結緣 (다) 碧城仙과의 結緣 (라) 黃小姐와의 結緣 (마) 一枝蓮과의 結緣 (4) 南征에 依한 立功 - (감) 蠻王 ?咤 鎭壓 (나) 紅桃國 鎭壓 (5) 勝戰歸國 (6) 忠言에 依한 試練 (7) 田園으로의 隱遁 (10) 子孫들의 活躍 (11) 昇天 (天上으로의 回歸) 等의 11個 Episode로 〈玉樓夢〉을 要約하고 이를 構成하고 있는 Motif를 分析하여, Mythological motifs, Tabu, Magic, The dead, Marvels, Tests, The wise and the foolish, Deceptions, Ordaining the future, Chance and fate, Society, Rewards and punishments, Captives and fugitives, Unnatural cruelty, Sex, Traits of Character, Riligion 等 17個種의 Motif를 檢出해 내었다. 그리고 Stith Thompson의 Motif-Index에는 細分되어 있지는 않으나 〈玉樓夢〉에 나타난 새로운 Motif들이 몇개 抽出되었는데 그것은 筆者가 任意로 Index의 類型에 맞추어 넣었다. 즉, · Mythological Motifs ; 天上人의 得罪로 因한 謫降, 天人의 天上回歸 · Marvels ; 여러사람에게 나타나는 똑같은 現夢 · Ordaining the future ; 觀相을 通한 占卜 · Chance and fate ; 科試를 通한 得官 · Society ; 友愛, 忠臣에 依한 忠諫, 奸臣에 依한 阿諂 · Rewards and punishments ; 忠諫으로 因한 귀양 · Sex ; 胎夢, 計略的인 結婚 · Religion ; 佛敎的 聖人 및 人物, 祈願에 依한 治病 祈願에 依한 懷妊 等이 그것이다. 끝으로 〈玉樓夢〉에 나타난 說話的要素의 比重과 그것의 意味를 살펴봄으로써, 作品全體가 Magic에 依한 展開를 보임으로 하여 〈玉樓夢〉이 超現實的 性格의 作品을 이룬다는 것과 特히 戰爭에서의 위기 해소 방법 및 갈등 해소에 神聖性을 갖는다는 點으로 이 作品의 性格을 규명하였다. 그리고 이러한 說話的要素들이 單純한 構成要素로서가 아니라 作品展開에 없어서는 안될 契機로서 使用되고 있다는 점으로 미루어 〈玉樓夢〉이 나아가서는 우리 古代小說이 그 플롯의 展開方法 및 內容에 있어서 說話的 要素를 많이 包含하고 있음을 밝혔다.;Considering the fact, that almost all of the Korean ancient novels were originatded from treditional narration, this work to extract and analise a property of narration elements (Motifs) contained in the ancient novels would be greatly belpful for carring out such studies as comparison of novels, adaptations, discovery of original narrations, and transformation-process of narrations into novels, which will be inevitably recuired As a means and a process for novel reseprch. Accordingly I will pick out narrative elements and find out its meaning through the concrete analysis depending on Motifs of "Okroo-Mong" among the Korean ancient novels. Prir to the structure analysis on "Okroo-Mong" by the way of Motif analysis, the position of this work in tbe history of ancient novels, through the general survey of former studies on "Okroo-Mong", is firstly reviewed. Nextly, after introducing the concepts of Episode and Motif which are after mentioned in narrative literatures.I took a review on several narratives classified in accordance with the aforementioned concepts by dividing the cases into foreign works and domestic ones. Here I esoecially tried to introduce briefly the Motif-Index by Stith Thompson which has provided helpful suggestions and many references to this thesis. But it was impossibl to use the concepts of Motif and Episode used in narrative literture in analizing the structure of "Okroo-Mong", because of the structural differences between novels and naratives. Therefore I tried to take the following method of analysis; that is, interpretiin the Episodes in this work as groups of compositional elements forming a section on development of story based on the concepts of Episode by J. L. Fischer, I took analysis of Motifs, dependlng on Motif-Index by Stith Thompson, which are contained in Episodes as their composition elements. As its result, the following episodes were classified.. (l) Descent of a diety to the mortal world (2) Birth (3) Forming a connections - (a) Connection with Hong-rang, (b) Connection with a voung "Yoon", (c) Connection with Byok-Sung-Sun,(d) Connection with a young lady "Hwang", (e) Connection with Il-ji-ryon. (4) Vlctory in the expedition to the South- (a) Repression over the king "Na-tak" (b) Repression over kingdom of Hong-do (5) Homecoming with victory. (6) Trials by expostulations. (7) Victory in the expedition to the north. (8) A harmonious family. (9) Retirement to a rural life. (10) Activities of offsprings. (ll) Ascension (revolution to the Heaven) After analizinp "Okroo-Mong" into the above 11 Episodes, I extracted the following 17 kinds of Motifs contained in those Episodes, Mythological motifs, Tabu, Magic, The dead, Marve1s, Tests, The wise and the foolish, Deceptions, Ordaining the future, Chance and fate, Society, Rewards and punishments, Captives and fugitives Unnataral cruelty, Sex, Traits of character, Religion. And I also found new Motifs in "Okroo-Mong" which were not classified in the Motif-Index, I put those new Motifs together into such types ag it deems appropriate in mv opinion. Those sre; (l) Mythological motifs; Descendance of heavenly man to the mortal world due to commitment of crime, Return of heavenly man to the heaven. (2) Marvels; The same dream appeared in several peoples. (3) Ordaining the future; Divination by the way of phrenology. (4) Chance and fate; To become a government official by passins a higher public service exmination. (5) Society; Brotherliness, Expostulations by faithful retainer, Adulation by villainous retainer. (6) Reward and punishments; Banishment due to faithful advices. (7) Sex; Dream of conception, Marriage in scheme. (8) Religion; Buddhistic saints and persons, Cure of diseases by prayer, Conception by prayer. Finally, reviewing the weight and the meaning of narrative e1ements appeared in "Okroo-Mong", I concluded the followings, Considering the fact that whole story of this work is composed of magics, "Okroo-Mong" be1ongs to category of super-realistic character. Particulay, it is notabie that I found sanctities in anti-crisis measures during wars and in dissolution of complications in this work. Considering the fact that such narrative elements are used not, merely ss simple composition elements but as moments essential to develop the whole story in this work, I made it clear that "Okroo-Mong" and, further speaking, almost all of our ancient novels contin much of the narrative characters.
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