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趙光祖의 改革思想 硏究

趙光祖의 改革思想 硏究
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대학원 사회생활학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
Cho Kwang Jo was not only a politician who contended revolutionary policy but a confucian who put his energy on conducting theory of humanitv-and-natural-laws. His social and political ideology was strongly constructed on the basis of lopic but it did not have no relation to its contemporary surroundings. He experienced vividly every bit of three kings' achievements extending from Seongjong to Joongjong. While Yunsangun ruled with reactionary policy against traditional political ideology of confucianism in the era of Seongjong, he concerned himself mainly in luxury and enjoyment and his subjects were in a hurry to eliminate new scholars in hatred of them rather than to devote themselves to good povernment. Accordinfly, his juvenescence during Yunsangun's rule was in hard time because of his misgovernment. As the result of the dictatorship, coup of Joongjong Banjeong has occurred against it. Studying from a famous confucian Kim Kwengpil during Yunsangun's rule, Cho became to be absorbed in ethical humanity-and-natural-law and to be much influenced in establishing his concepts. Cho was to proceed to official life in favor of the vicinities recommendation because his outstanding learning and talent became to be approved. Having enjoyed Joongjong's confidence in him for almost 5 years until 14th year of Joongjong, he had consecutively devoted himself to serve as Kyung Yun Kwan (Royal tutor), Wonja Boyang Kwan, Boojehak, Sahunboo Daesahun and etc., and carried out revolutionary policies of establishing Hyunlyangkwa, revising of Jungkoog Kongsin (meritorious retainer in foundation), removal of So Kyukso, supplying of Hyangyak (territorial regulations) and Sohak (children's textbook). Such achievements, however, were only a part of his social, political and revolutionary ideas. It could be said that they were constructed on the basis of historical experiences through philosophy of humanity-and-natural-law, His social and political ideas were royal political concepts which had been founded by the people and for the people, and whose ideal intention was those of Yo and Soon's rule. And we can say that his idea was to construct an ideal eociety making a model of Sejonp's. Judging that gain-and-loss mainly depended on rulers, he showed much concern about cua1ity of rulers and subjects, and claimed following contents; rulers have to discipline themselves to distinguish the noble and commoners, to foster scholars, to pay attention to public opinion and honest advice, to enjoy meeting with confucianists and to avoid eunuchs and official concubines. And he also asserted that natural order and popular sentiments be changed when ruler could no longer fulfill his responsibility. These explanations were rather depending on historical reality which he experienced than on intelligence of humanity-and-natural-law. In other words, his monarchial theory actually a kind of recuest to Joongjong for being a ruler who could renovate past bad government because his theory was made of under the historical experience of Yunsangun. On the other hand, convincing that though the king was the supreme power, actual leadership was in hands of subjects, retainers have to be wise, talented and intellectual at the same time so that good government could be established. And he criticized retainers severely placing emphasis on that they had also to advise honestly and guide rulers, and to be loyal and to reform evil custom according to public opinion. His principal revolutionary ideology which showed on removal of Sokyukso, supplying of Sohak and renovation of tax system was indicating that every evil custom arose from the ruling class and intended to refresh those irregularities. He not only asserted to reduce general heavy tax and to curtail expenditure of courts on the ground of by-the-people con-cept, but devoted himself to indiscriminate education of the good citizens and the humble. We would appreciate that such concept was rather a developed one under the contemporary situation. And it is to be estimated that this revolutionary concept was the result of historical experience as well as the persuit of natural theory. ;趙光祖는 中宗代에 일대 革新政治를 主張한 政治家로 性理學의 理論 實踐에 注力한 政治主義者이다. 趙光祖의 社會 政治思想은 性理學的 理論과 깊은 關聯위에 구축되어 있는 것이나 또한 그가 生存한 年代와 無關한 것이 아니다. 趙光祖의 生涯는 成宗朝로부터 中宗朝에 이르는 3代 君主의 治績을 생생하게 경험하였다. 儒敎主義 政治理念에 충실했던 成宗朝에 dfleo 反動政治를 한 燕山朝는 君主는 暴君으로 사치와 향락을 일삼고 權臣들은 善治에 注力하기 보다 新興士林의 登場을 시기하여 그들을 除去하기에 급급했다. 때문에 趙光祖가 靑少年時節을 보낸 燕山朝는 惡政이 계속된 時代였다. 이러한 燕山朝의 暴政에 대한 反撥로 中宗反正이 일어나게 되었다. 趙光祖는 燕山朝 治下에서 性理哲學의 實踐을 강조한 道學者로 유명한 金宏弼을 師事하여 그로부터 道學的 性理學에 몰두하게 되었으며 이러한 학문은 곧 그의 思想 形成에 커다란 영향을 미쳤다. 趙光祖의 탁월한 學問과 才能은 주위로부터 인정을 받아 特薦으로 官界에 進出하게 되었다. 以後 中宗 14年까지 대략 5年동안 中宗의 절대적인 信任을 받고 經筵官, 元子輔陽館, 弘文館 副提學 司憲付 大司憲 等의 要職을 역임하면서 賢良科 설치, 靖國功臣改正, 昭格署革罷, 鄕約과 小學의 보급 等의 革新的인 政策을 건의 시행하게 되었다. 이러한 革新政策은 趙光祖의 社會, 政治, 改革思想의 일부에 지나지 않는 것이다. 그의 革新思想은 性理哲學을 바탕으로 歷史的 現實의 경험을 토대로 하여 구축되어진 것이라고 할 수 있다. 趙光祖의 社會 政治思想은 民本정신을 바탕으로 한 王道政治思想으로 堯舜·三代를 理想으로 하고 우리나라 歷史에서 世宗代를 모델로 한 理想社會를 건설하려는 것으로 볼 수 있다. 趙光祖는 政治의 得失은 統治者에 따라 좌우된다고 보고 統治者인 君主와 大臣의 資質에 ?은 관심을 나타냈다. 특히 君主에게는 修德, 君子·小人의 嚴別士林의 培養, 直諫과 公論을 경청 그리고 儒臣의 접견을 좋아하고 宦官과 宮妾을 멀리할 것을 主張하였다. 同時에 天命思想을 나타내어 君主가 賢君이 못될때는 天理와 人心을 變하므로 君主는 항상 善政하여 보다더 진보함이 있도록 努力할것을 주장했다. 이러한 君主論은 性理學을 토대로 하여 現實的으로 燕山君代의 歷史的 경험을 通하여 形成된 것으로 中宗에게 前代의 惡政을 革新할 수 있는 君主가 되기를 要求한 것이다. 한편 趙光祖는 君主는 最高와 統治者이나 실질적인 統治權은 大臣에게 있다고 보고 善治가 이루어지려면 大臣이 賢臣이어야 한다고 강조하고 材·德을 겸비한 有識之士를 願하였다. 특히 大臣의 資質은 君主 直諫하고, 君主를 바르게 이끌며 公論을 따라서 國事에 충실하고, 現實의 弊習을 改革할 수 있어야 한다는데 主眼點을 두고 당시 大臣들은 맹렬히 비판하고 賢相이 될것을 要求하였다. 또한 趙光祖가 단행한 昭格署革罷, 小學의 보급 세제의 改革等에 나타난 그의 社會改革思想은 지배층에서부터 弊端이 생긴다고 지적하고 지배층의 부조리부터 革新하고자 하였고 民衆의 편에서서 愛民과 爲民 精神을 구현하고자 했다. 특히 民의 경제적 生活安定에 관심을 나타내어 과중한 貢·賦稅의 감면과 朝庭의 경비절약을 강조하는 한편 全 民衆에 대한 敎化에 注力하였다. 이러한 趙光祖의 改革思想은 性理學的 理念의 추구인 同時에 歷史現實에 입각한 것이나 당시의 時代的 상황 속에서는 상당히 革新的인 政治主義였다고 할 수 있을 것이다.
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