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謝靈運 山水詩 硏究

Title
謝靈運 山水詩 硏究
Other Titles
The Study on Xie-Ling-Yun's Landscape Poetry
Authors
金男美
Issue Date
1992
Department/Major
대학원 중어중문학과
Keywords
Landscape poetry(山水詩)Xie-Ling-Yun(謝靈運)Confucianism(儒家思想)Taoism(道家思想)Buddhism(佛家思想)Entering(出仕)Retirement(隱逸)Unworldliness(超俗)Wei-Jin-Nan-Beiera(魏晉南北朝)
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
李鐘振
Abstract
謝靈運 山水詩는 화려한 修辭技巧로 말미암아 形式面에 치우쳐 연구 되어왔다. 本 論文에서는 이러한 연구경향에서 탈피하여 謝靈運의 山水詩를 ‘內容’과 ‘形式’이라는 두 가지 측면으로 고찰해 봄으로써 ‘山水詩의 大家’라는 謝靈運의 文學史的 地位를 재조명하고자 한다. 첫째로, 본격적인 論議에 선행하여 작품이해를 위한 기본작업으로 謝靈運의 삶과 時代的 狀況을 살펴보았다. 魏晉南北朝時代는 東漢末로부터 계속된 정치적인 혼란으로 사회가 극도로 불안정하였으며, 思想係에서도 ‘名敎’만을 내세우는 儒家思想이 쇠퇴하고 정신적 자유를 추구하는 道家와 佛家思想이 발전하기 시작하였다. 이러한 時代的, 思想的 潮流속에서 謝靈運은 ‘山水詩’를 통해 자신의 懷才不遇를 토로해갔다. 둘째로, 本論에서는 ‘內容’과 ‘形式’이라는 두 가지 측면으로 나누어 山水詩를 검토해 보았다. 謝靈運은 초기에 儒家思想을 ‘濟世’의 근본으로 삼고 政治一線에 나섰다. 그는 宋이 건립된 이후 정치적으로 실의를 거듭하자 道家와 佛家가 추구하는 이상의 세계로 몰입해 갔다. 그러나 결국 현실과 이상사이에서의 갈등으로 완전한 해탈을 이루지 못하고 끊임없이 방황하게 되었다. 內容上 謝靈運은 山水詩속에서 자신의 思想的 變化過程을 반영함으로써 詩의 境界를 넓혔다. 形式上 謝靈運은 山水詩에서 ‘記遊 --> 寫景 --> 興情 --> 悟理‘ 라는 ’先景後情‘의 구성방식을 사용하여 자신의 思想情感을 효과적으로 전달하였으며, 重疊字·動詞·對句 등의 修辭技巧를 활용하여 山水에 신선함과 생동감을 불어 넣었다. 결국 謝靈運의 山水詩는 ’形式‘을 통하여 ’內容‘에 깊이를 더해주는 작용을 하였다. 세째로, 謝詩가 後代에 미친 영향을 歷代의 ‘評語’를 중심으로 살펴봄으로써 謝靈運의 文學史的 地位를 재고찰해 볼 수 있었다. 謝靈運은 첫째 文學에 山水自然을 주요제재로 도입함으로써 文學의 領域을 확대시켰고, 둘째 山水描寫에 사상을 담아내어 詩의 內容을 충실하게 하였으며, 세째 다양한 修辭技巧를 개발하여 山水를 보다 생동적으로 묘사하였다. 이로써 그는 中國語歌史에서 ‘山水詩의 大家’라는 地位를 차지하게 되었다. 이상의 논의를 중심으로 本考에서는 ‘山水詩人’이라는 謝靈運의 文學史的 地位를 재조명해 보았다. 그러나 이러한 일이 결코 한 두가지의 기준설정만으로 해결될 수 없는 것이기에 이후에 謝詩 全般에 걸쳐 심층적으로 계속 연구되어져야 할 것이다.;Most of critics have pointed "Xie-Ling-Yun(謝靈運)'s poetry has only the beauty of form but has not contents". In this connection, the purpose of this study is to review Xie-Ling-Yun's landscape poetry by analyzing idears which are expressed in his landscape poetry. This thesis is composed of six chapters. Chapter 1 : Introduction. The concepts of landscape poetry was accounted for, throwing light on the motive and the purpose of this study. Chapter 2 : His life and the background of the formation of landscape poetry. Xie-Ling-Yun's landscape poetry was writen in accordance to his contemporary social circumstances in which his own life was situated. The Wei-Jin-Nan-Bei era(魏晉南北朝時代) was a very chaotic epoch, both politically and economically. It was the time when the authority of Confucianism(儒家思想) had been degraded, while Taoism(道家思想) made progress. In addition, Buddhism(佛家思想), which had been introduced in the late Dong-Han years, Provided consolation to the people in an unstable society. Therefore the Confucian, Taoism, and Buddihsm developed under the influence of each other. In such social circumstances and as an outcome, Xie-Ling-Yun's landscape poetry served as a form in which he could expressed the conflict between the ideal and reality. Chapter 3 : The ideas reflected in landscape poetry. THe content of Xie-Ling-Yun's landscape poetry was examined in three parts of "Entering(出仕) and Confucian thought", "Retirement(隱逸) and Taoist thought", and "Unwor1d1iness(超俗) and Buddhist thought". In the early years, Xie-Ling-Yun had the aspiration of 'adniinistration(經國濟民)', but after his ambition was turned down in Liu-Song epoch(劉宋朝), he escaped from the reality into the native where he sought mental freedom. But he felt constant conflict between the reality and the ideal. So he sought for the state of transcendence taught by Buddhism. Xie-Ling-Yun's landscape poetry included these ideas. So Xie-Ling-Yun's landscape poetry could make the meaning of his poetry profound and image(意境) widen by reflecting Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism. Chapter 4 : The form of landscape poetry. The creative aspect of his poetry was mainly examined in relation to expressed features in title, plot and the techiques of rhetoric. The titles of his poetry made it possible to recognaize "the process and the path of his travelling" and the background of writing poetry. That title granted contents a regular order, So the plot of his poetry has a fixed frame as follow : "depicting-the process and the path of the travelling(記遊)" --> "describing natural scenery(寫景)" --> "expressing his feeling(興情)" -->"realizing the philosophic principles(悟理)". Using elaborate antithesis and repeated words, he expressed all the corners of scenery exquisitely and supplied landscape poetry with freshness and vividness. Chapter 5 : The landscape poetry's position in the history of literature and effect on the next generation. Even though Xie-Ling-Yun was influenced by spirit of Tai-Kang peom part(太康詩派) that emphasized elaboration and rhetoric and fomal aspect in literature, it was a natural phenomenon inflenced by Wei-Jin-Nan-Bei's Aestheticism. And then his poetry was evaluated as "hero of Yuan-Jia(元嘉)" at that time and have impacts on such poets as Tu-fu(杜甫), Liu-Zong-Yuan(柳宗元). Chapter 6 : Conclusion. The traditional notions about Xie-Ling-Yun's landscape poetry was as follows : "Xie-Ling-Yun's landscape poetry has only the beauty of form". That is because they overlooked the hidden idears within the form of poetry. Consequently, Xie-Ling-Yun's landscape poetry is significant in terms of expressing it's ideas by describing natural scenery.
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