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三國時代·統一新羅時代 佛像台座의 蓮華紋에 關한 硏究
- 三國時代·統一新羅時代 佛像台座의 蓮華紋에 關한 硏究
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- 蓮華가 泥水에 피지만 淸淨微妙하고 自發하는 素性과 德으로 인하여 佛敎에서 無上의 象徵的인 꽃으로 生成世界를 나타낸다. 그리하여 佛敎的으로 理想化되어 佛敎美術의 主紋樣으로 사용되었다.
本 考察에서 필자는 佛像臺座蓮華紋을 각 시대의 歷史的 背景에 중점을 두고 시대 順으로 區分 검토하였다. 한편 佛像의 螺?, 天衣등을 참고로 고찰하면서 蓮華紋의 形式變化를 硏究하여 보았다.
蓮瓣을 單瓣, 複瓣, 重瓣의 基本形式으로 분류하고 다시 無紋單瓣, 有紋單瓣, 複瓣, 無紋單葉重瓣, 有紋單葉重瓣, 複葉重瓣, 單複葉混用重瓣의 7가지 形式으로 分類하였다.(金和英氏의 蓮華紋 樣式分類에 따랐음)
A. 蓮華紋의 由來
B.C. 4900年 이집트 古王朝 피라밋드 時代에 呪術的槪念에서 器物의 장식용으로 사용되었다. B.C. 300年 메소포타미아 울(Ur) 先史王朝의 牛神像에 사용되고 印度에서는 모행조다로( Mohen-Jo-Dro, B.C 3300 年頃 ) 유적에 사용되었음을 볼수있다. 또한 阿育王( B.C. 269-232 ) 石柱에 나타났다. 그 이후로 이 柱頭의 예술에서 시작하여 聖座의 臺座紋樣으로 발전해 갔다.
(1) 佛敎와 蓮華紋
蓮華가 泥水가운데 피지만 진흙에 물들지 않는 淸淨微妙함과 自自發하는 素性, 蓮華에 德이 있어 常樂我淨에다 비유하여 佛敎에서는 蓮華를 無上의 象徵的인 꽃으로 사용되었다. 그리하여 蓮華가 佛敎的으로 理想化되었다.
(2) 佛像臺座와 蓮華紋
蓮華가 妙法을 莊嚴하게 하는座로 象徵되어 佛像臺座에 쓰였다. 처음으로 臺座에 蓮華가 나타난것은 간다라 中期 초반(250-350)에 등장한다.
모두 有紋單瓣伏蓮紋으로 둥근 모양에 끝이 날카로운 것이 특징이다. 時代에 따른 체계적 변화가 없고 東魏와 北濟樣式의 受容에 따랐도 高句麗化의 樣式이 나타났다.
前期에는 高句麗와 中國南北朝樣式을 많이 받았다. 無紋單 紋, 有紋單 紋, 無紋單葉重瓣紋이 나타나고 주로 無紋單瓣紋이 많이 쓰였다. 後期에는 隋 唐의 樣式의 영향을 받았다. 無紋單瓣紋, 有紋單瓣紋, 複瓣紋 單複葉混用紋이 나타났고 주로 複瓣紋이다. 초기에는 高句麗계통의 영향을 받았으나 時代가 흐를수록 百濟 특유의 曲線的이며 蓮 이 윗부분 보다 아래 부분이 넓어지며 화려해졌다.
佛敎의 受容이 늦기는 했지만 활발했던 佛敎的 造形活動에 비해 佛像臺座 蓮華紋은 이時代 고유의 것이라기 보다 高句麗와 百濟의 樣式에 의존했다고 본다. 無紋單瓣紋, 複瓣形式이 나타났고 主로 無紋單瓣紋이 많이 쓰였다. 처음에는 高句麗의 영향을 받았고 시대가 흐를수록 百濟의 영향이 강하고 新羅고유의 蓮瓣가운데를 二分하는 線이 생겼다.
(1) 第1期(統一에서 700年)
三國의 樣式이 계승되면서 새로운 樣式이 確立되기 시작한 과도기적 성격을 띈다. 百濟樣式인 複瓣伏蓮紋이 쓰였다.
(2) 第2期( 8世紀 前半 )
新羅佛像彫刻의 圓熟期로 仰蓮이 나타난다. 伏蓮에는 無紋單瓣紋, 有紋單瓣紋, 複瓣紋이 쓰였다. 主로 複瓣紋이 쓰였다. 仰蓮에는 無紋單瓣紋, 有紋單瓣紋이 쓰였으며 無紋單瓣紋이 主로 쓰였다.
(3) 第3期( 9世紀에서 滅亡까지 )
三國時代에 나타난 各 樣式과 第2期末에 보인 이 시대 특유의 양식이 共存하면서 蓮瓣끝의 反轉이 매우 심하다. 또한 蓮 끝이 Acathus樣式으로 연결되는 紋樣이 나타났고 蓮瓣속에 花文을 넣은 有紋單葉重瓣紋과 사실적인 滿開한 紋樣이 나타난다. 그리하여 화려한 樣式을 이루었다.
끝으로 이 조그만 硏究가 學界에 보탬이 되어 이 방면에 더욱 깊은 考察이 계속되기를 바란다.;The lotus flower, though blooming in muddy water, symbolizes the world of creation as a supremely symbolic flower due to its pure, delicate and spontaneous nature and virtue. Idealized as such in Buddism, it was used as a main design in the Buddist art.
In this analysis, efforts were made to analyze patterns of the lotus flower on Buddist images through a chronological classification with an emphasis on the historical background of each period. This study also deals with the transition of patterns while giving to consideration to the top-shell hair style and heavenly finery of Buddist statues.
Forms of the lotus petal can be classified into three basic patterns: single-line of petals, composite petals and overlapped petals, which are subdivided into seven categories: plain single-line, patterned single-line, composite, plain single-leaf overlapped and mixed-leaf overlapped petals.(This is based on Kim, Wha-Young's classification)
A. Origin of Lotus Flower Pattern
It was used for decoration of vessels in the sense of incantation in the pyramidal Egyptian Dynasty of B.C. 4900. Its vestige can be traced back to the godly image of a cow built in the prehistoric Ur Dynasty of B.C. 300 and to the artifacts of the Mohen-Jo-Dro in the ancient India of approximately B.C. 3300. It also appears on the capital of stone columns erected during the reign of King Asoka(B.C. 269-232). From then on it continued to develop as a pattern for engraving the stand of the holy image.
(1) Buddism and Lotus Flower Pattern
Though blooming in muddy water, the lotus was revered as a supremely symbolic flower in Buddism due to its purity and delicacy and its nature of spontaneity which never allows itself to be tainted by mud. It was also praised for its virtue of gaiety and self-purification to such an extent that it was idealized in Buddism.
(2) Stand of Buddist Image and Lotus Flower Pattern
The lotus flower was symbolized as having the power of making the supreme law of Budda sublime--so much so that its pattern was engraved in the stand of the Buddist image. It was in the first half of the middle of the Gandhara period(B.C. 250-350) that the pattern appeared for the first time in the stand of a Buddist image.
B. Three Kingdoms Period
Patterns used during the Koguryo Period are mostly of plain single-line of petals in descending position. The characteristic of it is round-shaped and pointed in the end. However, no systematic changes occurred since they dutifully followed the patterns of Eastern Wei and Northern Chi of China. Gradually they created their own designs.
During the former part, patterns of the Southern and Northern Dynasties of China imposed a great influence, and patterns of China imposed a great influence, and patterns of plain single-line of petals, patterned single-line of petals and plain single-leaf overlapped petals appeared. The most common pattern was of the plain single-line of petals. The latter part reflected a strong influency by Sui and T'ang of China. Patterns of plain single-line of petals, patterned single-line of petals, composite petals and mixed-leaf were the main fashion, in which the composite petals pattern excelled. Paekche was very much influenced by Koguryo at first. As time passed it developed its own unique pattern. It is curved and the upper part of the petal becomes gradually wider and more splendid than the lower part.
Compared with the prosperous formative arts in Silla Dynasty even though the accommodation of Buddism progressed at a slow pace, it is presumed that the lotus pattern in the stand of the Buddist image during the period was a combination of Koguryo and Paekche patterns rather than its own achievement. Plain single-line of petals and composite petals patterns appeared. Out of the two, the former was more commonly favored. The initial Koguryo influence receded and was gradually replaced by that of Paekche. Such a transition provides us with a distinctive line which divides the patterns of Silla into two unique designs.
C. Great Silla Period
(1) First Period(From the time of unification to A.D. 700)
This period was in the transitional stage which reflected the beginning of the formation of new patterns based upon the cultural heritages of the three kingdoms. The most typical pattern was the composite petals in descending position of Paekche origin
(2) Second Period(First half of the 8th Century)
In this period, sculpture of Buddist images attained maturity. The pattern of ascending petals came to use. For the pattern of descending petals, plain single-line of petals, patterned single-line of petals and especially composite petals were in general fashion. Patterns of plain single-line of petals and patterned single-line of petals were used in ascending position.
(3) Third Period(From the 9th Century to its fall)
While the patterns of the Three Kingdoms period and the peculiar patterns oat the end of the Second Period coexisted, the reverse of the end of a petal was very excessive. At the same time, a pattern which is closely associated with the Acanthus pattern appeared together with the pattern of patterned single-leaf composite petals in which flower patterns are incised and also realistic patterns of full blosom to produce a splendid design.
It is hoped that this study will contribute to the continued research in this field.
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