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The Comparison of Japanese and Korean Subcontracting Systems in the Automobile Industry

The Comparison of Japanese and Korean Subcontracting Systems in the Automobile Industry
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국제대학원 국제학과
이화여자대학교 국제대학원
This thesis aims to discuss how the subcontracting system in the Korean automobile industry should adapt to the rapidly changing economic environment, by comparing it to the Japanese subcontracting system in the same industry. For that purpose, similarities and differences of subcontracting systems of the automobile industry in both countries are examined respectively. The reason for the differences in the subcontracting systems cannot be explained without considering the evolution of the subcontracting systems in both countries. Firstly, the Korean subcontracting system was adopted under a favorable international environment, while the Japanese subcontracting system could develop because of the wage differentials of the Japanese workforce. Secondly, government policies of the two countries were quite different. Japanese small and medium sized subcontractors did have government support, financially and legally. However, most of the government support for Korean automobile industry was heavily concentrated on the assemblers rather than on the parts suppliers. Thirdly, the auto industry had to cope with different international economic conditions. In Japan, auto industry firms had to compete with one another for a growing domestic market, a competitiveness which led to exports to the U.S. based on high quality. In Korea, before the Korean auto industry was mature enough to compete with other auto makers, the international environment was favorable for Korean auto exports. Lastly, both countries' assemblers had different strategies. Under the circumstances mentioned above, it was crucial for Japanese auto assemblers to have a cooperative relationship with their parts suppliers. Not only parts suppliers, but also assemblers had an incentive to share information and technology. However, Korean assemblers only required their parts suppliers to amend their production line in order to base exports on a mass production strategy. These factors have affected the subcontracting structure of both countries shaping them differently.;하청계열화가 가장 잘 발달되었다고 알려진 일본 자동차 산업에 있어서의 하청계열화와 한국 자동차 산업에 있어서의 하청계열화를 비교함으로써, 한국자동차산업의 하청계열화가 나아가야 할 바를 제시하는 것을 이 글의 목적으로 한다. 한국과 일본의 하청계열화의 정도는 그 외주비율에 있어서는 근접하지만 계열화의 중층화 정도에 있어서나, 중.소 기업의 기술력 정도에서 차이를 보인다. 이러한 차이의 근원을 알아보기 위해서 한국과 일본의 자동차 산업의 발전경로를 알아보는 것이 중요한데, 한국과 일본은 자동차 산업의 발전과 하청계열화의 경로면에서 상당한 차이를 드러낸다. 하청계열화의 도입, 국가의 정책, 국제 경제적 환경, 완성차 업체의 생산전략등의 차이점은 오늘날 중.소 부품공급업체의 기술력의 차이를 낳았고, 이러한 기술력의 차이는 다시 하청계열화정도의 차이점을 유발하는 것이다. 단기적으로는 한국의 단층적 하청계열화의 발전을 위해서 국가는 기술력 부재에 기인해서 교섭력이 약해진 하청기업을 보호하기 위해서 불공정 거래를 철저히 막는 제도적 장치를 마련해야 한다. 장기적으로는 자동차의 제조업체와 국가 모두가 소수의 경쟁력있는 하청기업을 육성하는 정책의 구상이 요청된다.
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