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희랍彫刻科 中世彫刻에 관한 考察

희랍彫刻科 中世彫刻에 관한 考察
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대학원 순수미술과
이화여자대학교 대학원
古典期의 藝術樣式은 時代를 轉傳하면서 우리들의 周邊에 머물러 있다. 플라톤의 思想은 古典期에 있어서나, 現代에 있어서나 또 中世에 있어 받아들이는 樣相을 달리하면서 그 價値가 再評價되는 것이다. 古典期에는 플라톤의 美에對한 槪念은 너무 抽象的인 것이어서 視覺藝術表現에 종사하는 사람들에게 환영을 받지 못하였지만, 그의 理想主義哲學인, 「이데아 論」은 理想美를 追求했던 희랍精神의 밑거름이 되는 重要한 要素였다. 그리고 中世에서는 新 플라톤主義가 繼承되어 同時代의 哲學과 神學에 영향을 준바있다. 즉 플라톤은, 神은 精神的인 存在인고로 감각을 通해 얻은 知識은 믿음직한것이 못되고 이데아들에 依한 知識만이 참된것이라고 하였다. 이 思想을 받아들이기는 했지만 中世神觀은 信仰을 거쳐 하나님의 知識에 到達한다고 하여 見解를 달리하는 것이다. 고로, 中世에서는 思考方式은 플라톤 式으로, 宗敎內容은 그들의 神學的 槪念으로 把握했던 것이다. 또한 플라톤의 抽象理論은 現代에서 追求되어지고 있는 아니미즘의 立場도 밝혀주고 있는 것이다. 이리하여 數世紀 걸쳐 「古典精神」은 繼承되고 있는 것이다. 하여 本稿에서는 플라톤 思想의 新·舊樣相을 살펴본 것이다. 그리고 희랍 헬레니즘 彫刻의 精神的 背景을 通해 「古典精神」의 精神的 價値를 考察하였고, 中世彫刻의 抽象性이 단지 彫刻家들의 技術의 缺乏이 아니라 思想의 外部條件에 의한 必然的인 要求에 따른 結果임을 열거해 보았다. 그리하여 中世初期에서, 非生命的인 기호나 두상에서 生命을 제거하기 前 段階에 나타낸 寫實主義的인 作品의 表現力이 고전기의 숙달한 成形力과 대등한 솜씨인것 임을 通해 中世에서 表現된 象徵的인 技法은, 그 이웃하고 있는 思想이 要求되어지는 形態로 形成된것임을 살펴보았다. 또한 多神敎인 희랍 宗敎觀에서 나온 彫刻作品이 人間理想의 典形으로 만들어 진것임에 反해 唯一神敎인 그리스도敎의 神은 人間의 精神性을 강조하여 나온 이메지로 表現되어진 것임을 考察하여 보았다.;The artistic style of classical period has been remained around us although it has passed through many hands. An idea of plato has been followed in different aspects from the classical period, through the middle ages, and up to the present, it has even been re-valued. Plato's idea of beauty in the classical period was so abstract that the people who engaged in the expression of visual art were not welcomed. But his theory of ideas and philosophy of idealism was one of the important nutritious substance of the Greek mentality. And the theory of Neo-Platonisim was taken over in the middle ages and it had influenced on the philosophy and theology of the same age, Namely, Plato's thought and the knowledge gained through his idea is more reliable than that gained through sense. Although his thought was accepted at that time, the theologians middle age's held the different view that God can be approached only by having religious faith. Therefore the people in the middle ages followed plato's way of thinking while they tried to understand the religious content in their theological concept. It is considered that Plato's abstract theory makes the situation of modem animism clearly understood. This fact means the classical spirit has been inherited through many centuries until now. The present article discussed the new and old aspect of Platonism. Also, this article treated the mental value of the classical sprit compared to the mental background of the Greek Hellenistic sculpture. In addition, it emphasiged that the abstract quality of the middle age's sculpture is rather valuable in aspect of sculptural technique, necessarily resulting from the external and social conditions of thought. Considering that even in the early middle ages sculpture showed some lifeless signs and the human head was deprived of vitality, the realistic works were skillfully created. In the classical period, it can be seen that the symbolical techniques expressed in the middle ages came out from the background of neighbouring thought that existed extensively. Finally it is discussed that only the God of Christainity was expressed by the image emphasizing human being's spiritual nature, while the sculpture works coming from Greek's polytheistic religion were made in the typical form of human ideal.
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