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公務員 및 公益事業 勤勞者의 勞動 關係法 硏究

Title
公務員 및 公益事業 勤勞者의 勞動 關係法 硏究
Other Titles
A Study On The Law of Labour Relations Concerning The Public Officials And Public Utility Workers
Authors
辛仁羚
Issue Date
1974
Department/Major
대학원 법학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
白宰奉
Abstract
The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the legitimacy of special Legal regulations which regulate the fundamental right of workers through a systematic research on the law of labour relations concerning the public of officials and public utility workers, and at the same time to practically make a contribution to its application and operation through a systematic interpretation of the related laws. In the initial portion of this study, the major concept of a public of official and a public utility worker was defined. First of all, the concept of a worker, which is the subject of the labour law, was examined according to the "Definition of laborers' in the positive law of Korea concerning the labour relations . And its broadest concept according to the Article 4 of the Labour Union Law that" 'A Laborer' mentioned in this law shall mean the person who lives on wages, salaries, or any other income similar thereto regardless of the kind of his occupation." was employed in this thesis . Secondly, in accordance with this concept, it was affirmed that public officials are also workers. As for the concept of a public official in this part, it was meant "the officials who constitute the state and public agencies which take responsibility of public service in connection with special power relations provided in public law." Finally, the score of public utility worker was decided by the 'concert of public utility'. Here the concept of Public utility was investigated on the basis of the positive law, particularly in the perspective of labour law. In relation to the task of this study, the public utility was meant as its broadest concept the services enumerated in Article 4, Labour Dispute Adjustment law and Article 1 (2) of its Act; Article 2, Special Law governing labour union and labour dispute adjustment of foreign investment enterprise and paragraph1, Article 2 of its Act; and Paragraph 2, Article 9, special law concerning National Security. In the second part of this study, first, the nature of the fundamental right of workers was considered as the social phenomenon which has appeared to overcome the actual inequality and deficiency of freedom of workers r and the urge for individuals to mutually help to cope )with the repressing forces. Secondly, three rights of worker (rights of associations, collective bargaining and collective actions ) were comprehended as a unified concert of right . Thirdly, it was presupposed that the legal nature of these three rights of workers is more than the natural right and the government should be responsible to positively protect them. Finally, the views which are assorted as the legal ground to limit the public officials' and public utility workers' fundamental right of workers were examined: (1)theory of special power relations, (2) theory of servants of the entire people , (3) theory of 'service publique',(4) theory of compensational measures, (5) theory of public welfare,(6) theory of essential services, a d (7) theory of protection of life of the entire people. It was found, however, that these views were not considered to be the sufficient and reasonable ground to limit the public officials and public utility workers' fundamental right. Therefore, it was recommended that it should only be considered within the original framework of the meaning of protection of the fundamental right of workers. In the third section of this study, the cases of legislation related to the Labour relations of public officials and public utility workers in major Western countries (Germany , France , England, and the United Sates of America) and Japa, and the International Labour 1aw (ILO Agreement and Admonition) were first considered in the perspective of comparative law. Secondly, a general survey of the changes of the Law of labour relations concerning public officials and public utility workers of Korea in the seventh constitutional, amendment since its establishment in 1948, was carried out. This evidently shows the fact that even if the labour movement and the relations between the employers and employees have gradually been developed into the autonomous ones ever since the Law of Labour relations was legislated and proclaimed in Korea, the government interference has ever been increased and strengthened as we suffer from it today. Especially in the third phase, the government imposed by force 'bold limitation 1 as the essential threat to the protection of three rights of worker. Finally, the issues related la the paragrapy 2, Article 29 of the Constitutional law, the provision of Article 66, National Public Service Law (Atiicle 58, Local Public Service Law), Article 28, Service Regulations of Public Officials, the Service Regulatoins of National Public Officials, the Educational Public Officials Law (Article 43), ,Bad The Private School Law (Article 55) were analyzed. It was found that due to the extremely broad scope of public utility and the abstract contents of the related law and regulations, there remains much possibility of abuse. These special provisions which were applied to public utility have proved that the government ignored the important fact that there is no longer difference between public utility End private enterprise in qualitative dimension due to the concentration of capital and the formation of monopoly enterprise which eventually called for public consciousness of private enterprise more than ever in the twentieth century. It was also suggested that the same criticism may be applied to Special law concerning National Security and Special law governing labour union and Labour dispute adjustment of foreign investment enterprise . From the foregoing study on the law of labour relations concerning the public officials and public utility workers, conclusion was drawn as follows, In the perspective of legislation, all the unjust Laws should be so revised and adjusted as to be congruent with the philosophy of the constitutional law of Korea as a free democratic welfare nation. In the perspective of scientific interpretation of Law, drastic efforts should be exerted into minimizing the essential infringement of the limitation of the people's fundamental rights by marking the strictest interpretation of related laws in their application and operation. When the positive lawu contradicts the prescriptives, a campaign should be driven either to revise it or abolish it, and when the rights provided by the just positive Law are not protected due to its wrong application and operation, a movement to obey the existing law should be carried out in accordance with the legal procedures , ;이 논문의 과제는 「공무원 및 공익사회근로자의 노동관계법」에 대한 체계적인 연구를 통해 이들 근로자의 노동기본권에 대한 특수한 법적규칙의 타당성여부를 밝혀봄과 동시에, 관계법규의 체계적 해석을 통하여 그 적용? 운용에 실제로 기여하고저 하는 것이다. 먼저 이 논문에서 사용하고 있는 중심개념을 정리하였다. 첫째, 노동법의 주체가 되는 「근로자의 개념」을 우리나라 노동관계법상의 「노동자의 정의」에 의하여 검토하고, 그 중에서 최광의의 개념인 노조법 제 4조에 의한 직업의 종류를 불문하고 임금? 급료 기타 이에 준하는 수입에 의하여 생활하는 자를 이 논문에서의 근로자개념으로 채용하였다. 다음 이러한 근로자개념에 따라 공무원도 근로자임을 확인하였다. 여기서의 「공무원개념」은 협의의 개념을 채용하여 국가 또는 공공단체와 공법상 특별권력관계를 맺고 공무를 담당하는 기관구성자“를 의미하게 된다. 끝으로, 「공익사업근로자의 개념」은 「공익사업」의 개념에 따라 정해진다. 여기서의 공익사업의 개념은 노동법학ㅈ거 공익사업개념만을 실정법에 근거하여 구명하는데, 본 논문의 과제와의 관계에서 최광의의 개념인 노쟁조법 제4조 및 동시행령 제 1조의 2, 외자기업특별법 제2조 및 동시행령 제2조①항, 보위법 제9조②항 등에서 열거하고 있는 사업을 공익사업으로 하였다. 다음 장에서는 첫째로 노동기본권의 본질을 시민법의 원리를 수정하여 근로자의 생존을 위한 권리를 보장하려는 것으로 보고, 이것은 실정법적 선언에 의하여 창설되는 권리가 아니라 역사적 산물로서 「20세기의 자연법」이 요구하는 권리로 받아들였다. 둘째로, 노동삼권(단결권? 단체교섭권? 단체행동권)의 상호관계는 상호불가분의 통일적 개념으로 파악하였다. 셋째로, 이러한 노동삼권의 법적성질은 자유권 이상의 적극적인 권리로서 국가는 근로자의 삼권을 행사함에 있어 그 장해를 제거해야 할 뿐 아니라 적극적으로 이를 보장해 주도록 노력할 의무를 지는 생존권이라고 보았다. 끝으로 공무원 및 공익사업근로자의 근로기본권제한의 법적 근거로 주장되는 ① 특별권력관계설, ② 국민전체의 봉사자설, ③ 공공역무설, ④대상조치설, ⑤ 공공복리설, ⑥ 필수적사업 유지설, ⑦ 국민전체의 이익확보설 등을 검토한 결과 이러한 견해들은 모두 공무원 및 공익사업근로자의 노동기본권제한의 충분하고 합리적인 근거가 되지 못한다는 사실을 알았다. 그러므로 이것은 노동기본권보장의 본래의 의미에 돌아가 고찰 할 수밖에 없으며, 결국 구체적으로 그 「직무의 성질과 내용」에 따른 내재적 제한이 가능할 뿐이라는 결론을 얻었다. 그 다음 장에서는, 공무원 및 공익사업근로자의 노동관계에 대한 외국의 입법례 중 주요 구미제국(독? 불? 영? 미)과 일본의 경우 및 국제노동법(ILO조약? 권고) 등을 비교적으로 고찰한 후, 우리나라에 있어서의 관계법변천과정을 1948년 헌법제정이래 7차의 헌법 개정을 거친 오늘에 이르기까지를 개관하였다. 그것은 우리나라의 노동관계제법이 제한공포된 이래 노동운동과 노사간의 제관계가 점차 자주적인 발전과정을 밟아왔음에도 불구하고 국가의 간섭개입의 도는 더욱 강화되어 개악의 길을 걸어 오늘에 이르렀음을 보여주고 있다. 마지막으로, 현행법상의 문제점을 공무원의 노동기본권제한, 「사실상 노무에 종사하는 공무원」의 범위, 교원의 노동기본권, 기타 별정직공무원에 대한 단행법(령), 공익사업의 범위 및 공익사업에 대한 특칙규정, 외자기업특례법 등 특별법에 의한 특칙 등을 분석함으로써 구체적으로 지적하였다. 이상의 연구를 통하여 얻은 결론은, 공무원 및 공익사업근로자의 노동관계법이 불합리한 특칙규정을 하고 있다는 것을 확인하였다. 따라서 불합리한 제도로 지적된 제법규를 개정하여 복리국가적 자유민주주의의 우리나라 헌법이념에 적합하도록 명실상부하게 정비해야 할 것이며, 해석론적으로는 관계법규의 적용? 운용에 있어 가능한 한 최대의 엄격해석으로 국민의 기본권제한의 근본적 침해를 줄이도록 노력해야 할 것이다. 당위적규범과 실정법이 상위할 때에는 실정법개발의 운동을 전개해야 할 것이고, 정당한 실정법상의 권익이 그 적용? 운용으로 인하여 보호되지 않을 때에는 현행법준수의 운동을 적법한 절차에 따라 전개해야 할 것이라는 의견을 제시하였다.
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