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表現主義의 形成과 展開

表現主義의 形成과 展開
Other Titles
A Study on the Foundation and Development of German Expressionism
Issue Date
대학원 회화학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
With the beginning of the twentieth century there emerged one of the most significant movements in modern art: Expressionism. In Expressionist art form, line, and color are governed by the need to express emotion; it is characterized therefore by distortion and exaggeration of form combined with marked simplification of line and strong color. Expressionistic features can be seen, for example, in German Gothic painting and sculpture. As a movement in modern art, Expressionism dates from the early years of the 20th century and is mainly a Northern European phenomenon. Formative influences were the passionate art of van Gogh and to some extent that of the Fauves; African art, brought to European notice in the late 19th century; and the work of the Norwegian Munch: The latter's interest in graphic art in general and the woodcut in particular, and his concern with social comment, are reflected in the work of the Gorman Expressionists. These artists formed two main groups, Die Br?cke and Der Blaue Reiter. Die Br?cke(German: "The Bridgo") was a group of artists led by Kirchner, Schmidt-Rottluff, Bldyl, and Heckel, who came together in dresden in 1905 for the purpose of promoting and sustaining interest in advnaced art. They are often linked to the contemporary French Fauves and exhibit certain comparable traits, although the German work has more violent social and political undertones. Die Br?cke had no one particular style or program, although each member could be said to belong to one or other category of the expressionists, and most of the early work shows a similarity in the use of loud and often harsh colors, jagged contours, and in fervent dramatic power. The group, which moved to berlin in 1910 and was finally dispersed in 1913, had a great importance, together with Der Blaue Reiter, in establishing modern painting in Germany. Its influence was felt also in sculpture, graphic art, and most other fields of design. Der Blaue Reiter (German: "The blue rider"), was an artistic movement initiated by marc and Kandinsky in Munich in 1911, whose purpose was to bring together the many and diverse forms of modern painting. The mouth-piece of the group was to have been a magazine also called "Der Blaue Reiter", but only one copy of this appreared, in 1912. More important was the group's series of exhibitions in which all similarly minded artists, whether German or foreign, took part. world War I virtually brought about the end of the movement, several of its members, including Marc and Macke, losing their lives, but its purpose, that of establishing modern art in Germany, had been achieved. There were always artists outside Germany whose work bore all the characteristics of Expressionism, and who yet did not take part in the life of the movement. In America too Expressionism, or Abstract Expressionism, is a well known phenomenon. It is, in fact, justifiable to speak of Expressionist tendencies which need not be connected with the movement itself. At times these may not be fashionable - just now, for instance, they are rather in the background. But they will probably always exist, as they have always existed in the past, as a reflection of spiritual crisis as well as creative unrest.
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