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매집의 기능과 제작방법에 관한 고찰

매집의 기능과 제작방법에 관한 고찰
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대학원 응용미술학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
물체를 묶거나 서로 다른 물체를 연결 지을 때 중요한 역할을 하여온 매집은 점차 인간의 장식본능에 의해 미를 지니고 발달되어 왔다. 따라서 매집의 기능을 실용적인 면과 장식적인 면으로 분류하여 볼 수 있는데 실용적인 면은 대개 농경용, 건축용, 선박용, 숫자표기, 문자의 뜻 등을 나타내는데 사용하였으며 장식적인 면은 주로 인간생활의 가까이에서 볼 수 있고 만질 수 있는 범위 즉 의복의 장식, 애완물의 장식, 기타 기물의 장식으로 나누었는데 이는 본 연구자가 조사한 범위 내에서 분석 기술하였다. 장식적인 면의 매집에 있어서도 실용적인 면이 전혀 없는 것은 아니었겠으나 대부분 장식적 효과를 많이 누리며 그 재료 또한 질감이 좋은 명주실이 많았다. 이렇듯 여러 분야에서 발달되어 온 매집은 그 자체 민속공예로서의 독자성을 지니고 있음은 두 말할 나위도 없거니와 이와 같이 이 한국매집은 실물성, 만화성, 단순성, 연결성, 장식성, 심미성, 전통성 등 다양한 성격을 지니고 있다. 그러므로 본 연구에서는 이러한 기능과 성격을 통하여 매집의 이용과 범위를 고찰하고 또 그 계승의 방법인 종래의 종제식에 의하여 특정인에게서만 이어져 온 제작방법을 종합하여 체계화하고 일반화함으로써 현대생활과의 조화를 이룰 수 있는 가능성을 타진하려고 하였다. 그 결과를 다음과 같은 내용으로 전개하고자 한다. 첫째, 매집은 실용적 기능에서 장식적 기능으로 전환되어가고 있다. 둘째, 매집은 비영구적 재료에 의해서 영구적 보존이 가능치 못하다. 셋째, 매집이 장식적 요소로서 그 용도가 광범위하였으나 매집 자체의 주체적 역할보다는 종속적 역할을 많이 하였다. 넷째, 매집의 장식과정은 아직 수공예적 과정을 벗어나지 못하고 있어 현대생활의 수요에 충족하지 못하고 있다. 다섯째, 그러나 매집의 전통적 형태를 기반으로 한 다양한 변형의 가능성을 갖고 있다. 그러므로 앞으로의 연구 방향은 이 다섯 가지 점을 보완하여 영구적 재료의 개발, 매집의 주체적 역할의 증대, 다양한 변형의 가능성의 유발 등의 조형적 연구와 아울러 현대생활의 조화있는 활용이라는 문제의 해결을 위한 연구가 지속되어져야 할 것으로 보인다.;If modern dance is to have its proper role as an art which is related to human life there should first be a very good understanding of the human person. With this understanding of the personality of man and as an intermediary step there must be a scientific analysis of mime as a creative body art. This last step is absolutely essential. The human body is not only an instinctive animal influenced by physical drives and desires, but, also the human being is endowed with spiritual and rational searches eternally for a creative relationship with God. Thus, we observe in ancient society that mime, dance and religion were closely related. Human activities from the earliest times brought these things together. In modern times dancing and mime, of course, as they are closely related, but particularly mime, have been circumscribed as pure body arts. It is this situation which has led me, in this thesis, to take an historical approach to mime and its creative task. From the observation of human history it is clear that mime began with human history. From beyond time and space, mime can be traced in its various forms right up to the present. Nevertheless, it is also true that,, at the present time, mime as an art is not very well developed as an independent field of study. Rather it has been connected with other art or religious fields. Furthermore, the creative task of mime has yet to be isolated and developed. Since literary, technological and language culture are now reaching the limits of their creativity it is absolutely essential that the creative task of mime should be unfolded and allowed to develop. In the search for the creative task of mime I will begin with a comparison of the Hebrew and Greek philosophical approaches to the understanding of the human body in western culture. In the Greek traditional attitude to human nature the physical body was thought to be entirely separate from the spiritual person while in Hebrew thought, the human person was thought of as a unit by the creative power of God. Thus, in Greek thought the body tended to be ignored while the Hebrews believed that, the human person had two aspects - body and spirit - both a part of God's creation in the one unit. Christianity came into Greek culture with its two dimensional attitude to the human person and was never able to break down this dualistic idea of the Greeks. They looked upon the body as dammed and thought, that the bodily arts such as dancing and mime had no place in churches or in services of worship. However, the human personality is unchangeable - it is not altered by the various religious and cultural systems. As a result, mime as a body art has persisted and developed in various places and in various forms. In this thesis I have tried to analyse the rich symbolic capability of the body and to look at this symbolic capacity as it comes into the communication process through gestures. In this connection I have studied concrete cases. I observed the creative task of mime as I saw it in modern dancing, drama, Bible study, worship ceremonies and in traditional Korean dances. After these observations, the conclusion is that mime has a role as a stimulating force in these various religious and artistic fields. This is not a final conclusion but only a beginning of the scientific analysis of the creative task of mime which is so absolutely essential. The creative task of mime should be studied in future as follows. First, a proper understanding will come only with further study of the body not only in Western culture but also in Oriental culture in its various components. The study should be biological and psychological and should rise finally into the spiritual - into the field of higher religions. Secondly, the search for the creative task of mime should include careful research into traces of mime in Korean traditional culture. At the same time there should be careful attention as to whether Korean traditional dancing has the ability to not, only overcome its natural chauvinism but also the power to resist absorption into foreign cultural patterns and to retain its own unique identity Thirdly, the creative task of mime cannot be understood through a simple theoretical approach, There must be serious study of many concrete experimental cases.
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