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조선시대 통도사 단청문양에 대한 연구
- 조선시대 통도사 단청문양에 대한 연구
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- 備敎國家로서 韓民族은 오랜동안 佛敎恩想의 影響을 받아왔기 때문에 藝術觀에 있어서 佛敎의 思想이 바탕을 이루고 있을 것이다. 그러므로 佛敎美術의 한 영역인 寺刹에 施紋된 丹靑을 宗敎思想的인 側面에서 考察하고 機能으로서의 造形性을 밝혀보는데 이 논문의 연구목적이 있다.
木材의 保存과 裝飾을 위해서만이 아니라 記錄과 傳達을 위한 展示效果로서도 發祥된 丹靑은 우리 나라에서는 그 由來를 高句麗 古蹟 壁畵에서 찾을 수 있으며 以後 百濟와 新羅로 傳達됨과 동시에 民族性에 따라 獨特한 紋樣으로 發展시켰을 것이며 高麗에서는 護國政策으로 인하여 國敎이어던 佛敎의 뒷받침으로 지극히 융성했을 것이다.
이러한 丹靑美術은 朝鮮時代로 넘어오면서 當時 佛敎의 一大特徵을 이룬 西山大師의 儒彿仙 合一의 敎理인 仙禪思想이 示唆되고 있음을 볼 수 있다.
그러므로 佛敎가 庶民에게 깊이 浸透한 朝鮮時代 全般에 걸친 丹靑美術이 硏究되어야 하나 오랜 時間에 걸친 體系的인 調査가 不可能하여 朝鮮時代의 寺刹丹靑 中에서도 新羅때부터 우리나라 寺刹의 代表的中心役割을 하는 通度寺를 重點的으로 하여 當時의 基本思想이었던 禪思想이 佛敎藝術에 끼친 影響, 紋樣의 時代的 特性과 建築樣式, 部材別 紋樣의 特徵, 各 佛堂이 지니는 思想이 紋樣에 미치는 影響등을 調査한 結果
1. 丹靑 紋樣의 種類는 佛敎的인 紋樣들과 道敎的인 紋樣, 庶民的인 紋樣들이 混合되어 있으며
2. 紋樣의 造形性은 傳統的으로 樣式化된 紋樣을 傳受한 것과 禪宗的橫안 自然美觀의 影響으로 部材의 樣式에 구애되지 않고 面師의 美感을 자유롭게 살린 것 등 2種으로 나눌 수 있으며
3. 時代的 特徵은 中期申에는 머리초의 휘의 樣式에서 인휘와 매듭휘를 써서 우아하고 色相도 單調롭고 後期의 特徵은 바자취를 써서 複雜하고 色相도 화려하며
4. 部材別 紋樣의 特徵은 部材의 機能과 造形性에 맞추어 여러 種類의 紋樣이 裝歸되었으나 동일 部材끼리는 傭統的으로 施紋되는 紋樣에 類似性이 있었으며
5. 各 佛堂에 施紋擔된 紋樣의 特徵은 佛堂의 格에 따라紋樣의 造形과 品位가 다르고 佛堂이 지니는 性格에 따라 紋樣의 素材가 달라졌으며
6. 通度寺에 施紋된 紋樣의 特徵은 大體로 中期 建物에서는 우아하고 品位가 있으며 後期 建物에서는 造形性에 依存하지 않는 禪宗的 自然美觀의 影響이 나타나 있고 庶民的인 紋樣의 素材가 登場한 것이 밟혀졌다.
이렇듯 朝鮮時代 通度寺의 丹靑은 敎理에 충실한 宗敎藝術에 국한되지 않고 庶民 藝術의 根源으로서 또 造形的으로 吉祥紋樣의 호示 役割을 하게 되므로 이 調査를 바탕으로 하여 앞으로 朝鮮時代 丹靑紋樣에 대한 體系的인 硏究(地域的 交流 狀態, 時代的 類型 등)가 뒤따라야 하는 한편 丹靑紋樣의 造形的價値로 보아 現代 紋樣으로 應用 鬪發되어지는 硏突가 必要하다고 생각되었다.;The outlook on arts in Korea should base on the Buddist Ideology. Because the Korean race have been affected by at for a long time. As a buddist nation.
Accordingly the object of this thesis is to study ""Dan-Cheong""^(1)) which was painted at the Buddhist temples-one of the buddist painting from the view point of Religious Ideology and to clarify the functional formation of ""Dan-Cheong.""
""Dan-Cheong"" was been started not only for the preservation and decoration of wood but also for an exhibition effect for record and transmission of Buddhist Ideology. We can find the origin of ""Dan-Cheong"" from the mural painting at the old tomb in ""Koguryo"" dynasty period and it was prevailed to ""Bakje"" and ""Silla"" dynasty, developing into special design which was proper to the racial characteristics. Also it was in full flourish in ""Koryo"" dynasty period owing to the support of Buddhism which was National Religion at that period, as a part of the policy of Nation's protection.
In ""Chosen"" dynasty, It can be seen this ""Dan-Cheong"" arts should suggest ""Seon-Seonl""^(2)) idea; the tenet of ""Yu-Bul-Seon""^(3)) which is the magnificient characteristic of ""Chosen"" dynasty Buddhism and Saint ""Seosan"" advocated.
Though ""Dan-Cheong"" arts must be studied carefully and thoroughly in whole ""Chosen"" dynasty preiod when Buddhism was impregnated into the masses deeply, it is impossible to survey its systematic investigation covering the whole ""Chosen"" Dynasty because it takes too much time.
Therefore ""Tongdosa"" temple was selected as a representative model of Temple's ""Dan-Cheong"" in ""Chosen"" dynasty period, considering this temple was been playing an import role for the prevail of Buddhism from ""Silla"" dynasty period.
This thesis studied the influence to Buddhist arts by Zen idea which was the basic ideology in ""Chosen"" dynasty period, the characteristics of ""Dan-Cheong"" and building style according to the period, the design's characteristics of each construction part, and the influence to the design of ""Dan-Cheong"" by the idea of each sanctum in ""Tongdosa"" Temple.
As the results of this study;
(1) The kinds of ""Dan-Cheong"" designs; there are mixed with the Buddhist design, Taoistic design and popular design.
(2) Formation of design; they are devided into two parts-one which was inherited traditionally conventionalized design and one which expressed an art sence of the painter freely without any adherence to fixed consept of design owing to the influence of Zen Buddhism.
(3) The Charateristics of ""Dan-Cheong"" according to the period; in the middle period of ""Chosen"" dynasty ""Dan-Cheong"" is very simple and graceful by using ""In-hee""^(4)) and ""Maedeup-hee""^(5)) in the ""Hee""^(6)) forms of ""Meoli-cho""^(7)) but in the latter period of ""Chosen"" dynasty, it is very complicated and has brilliant color by using ""Baza-hee^(8)).
(4) The characteristics of design according to the materials of the construction parts; Various designs were decorated properly in accordance with the function and formation of the construction parts, which were decorated with a traditional design according to its position and function.
(5) The characteristics of design according to the Sanctum; the formation and dignity of designs were altered owing to the grade of Sanctum and also the materials of design were altered owing to the characteristics of each Sanctum.
(6) The characteristics of design in ""Tongdosa"" temple; it was discovered that middle age's building has graceful and elegant designs while latter age's building had been influenced by arts naturalism of Zen Buddhism and had been decorated by the popular design materials.
In Conclusion, ""Dan-Cheong"" of ""Tongdo sa"" temple in ""Chosen"" dynasty period was not limited to Religious Arts which is substantial in Religious doctrine and it plays an important role in ""Kilsang""^(9)) design in the formative aspect as an origin of popular arts.
Based on this study it is thought that systematic survey for this ""Dancheong"" design in ""Chosen"" dynasty period (regional exchange of design, disign style according to the period, etc.) must be followed in near future and at the same time it is necessary to study the application and development to the present design considering the formative value of ""Dan-Cheong"" design.
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