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회령개시에 관한 연구

Title
회령개시에 관한 연구
Authors
김영숙
Issue Date
1979
Department/Major
대학원 사회생활학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
Hoyruyng trading market ( 會寧開市 ) is a kind ofofficial trade carried out for a specific period between the people of Yi dynasty and those of Ching dynasty (Ching chinese country).Youngotap ( 寧古塔 : Youngan) People and Ora ( 烏 剌 : Gilimsung) people of Ching dynasty with Yi dynasty traded each other for two hundred and fifty years from october 1628 (Incho 6th year,Ohunchong 2th year) to 1882 (Kochong 19th ear, Kwangsu 8th year). The commerce was carried on at Hoyruyng near mid-stream of Dooman river, border between chosun and Ching and that is also the reason of calling it Hoyci or Chungci. Hoyruyng trading market together with Chungang trading market ( 中江開市 ) which was carried on Chosun side of Yalu river contributed a great deal to the commerce between chosun and Ching,and caused many political or economical problems. The main concern of this thesis is on the historical background of Hoyruyng trading market from king Incho to King Youngcho of Yi dynasty and it will be discussed chronologically. Hoyrung was historically one of the very important places through where Yugin ( 女 眞 ) people could take a route to Chosun and also provided them a routh to many cities of Chosun; for example, kuyongwon. During the Chosun Kwanghaegoon ( 光海君 ) period, Hou-kum ( 後金 ) Kingdom, having political trouble with Ming, Suggested Chosun to open a trade at Hoyreyng in order to overcome the economical disadvantages resulted from an economic blockade by Ming but the suggestion was refused properly by chosun. This refusal was induced from Kwanghaegoon's jdgment that he should not open trade either with Ming country or with Ching country in the point of a duplicated utilitarian foreign policy which affected his own economic policy. For thek King Incho ( 仁祖 ) period, as a turning point from Ming to Ching Chosum devloped its political relationships with Ching and Hoyruyng trading market was embarked by the request of Ching. On the whole, I will descrie this Hoyruyng trading market by two periods; one before Byungzahoran ( 丙子胡亂 ) and the other after Byungzahoran. The former period (from Incho 6th year to Incho 14th year was right after Jungmyohoran ( 丁卯 胡 亂 ) and the trade was a form of buying and releasing the captives ( 贖 還 開 市 ) , which was intended to avoide by Chosun because it was disadvantageous trade to Chosun politically and economically. The latter period after Incho 14th year they ropened the marketing which was suspended temporarily due to Byungzahoran. For this period, the unreasonable demand for trading commodities and currency by Ching caused complications between these two countries and as the results, it was not so much advantageous to Chosun. At Hoyruyng trading market for the times of Hoychong ( 孝 宗 ), Huynchong (顯宗 ), nearly one thousand of Ching people came to Hoyruyng for trade with thousands of cowes, Horses, Carmels etc. They stayed there for 80 or 90 days and this resulted the prosperity of private business. While they stayed at Hoyruyng Chosun people provided Ching people with foods and rooms and it costed Chosun people very much. During the King Youngeho ( 英 組 ) age, the local leader and iterpretative officials of Hoyreyng district privately provided the officials of ching with prenty of rice and Silk ( 私 贈 ) Afterwards the provision became to be enlarged so that the city officials had to supply them with such things ( 邑 贈 ). And finally as the demand of supply was increasing every years, the whole citizens of Hamkyung provinee had to take the role to supply the Ching asked. Meanwhile, Chosun government requosted Ching cither to get rid of such city provision or to make the rules of Hoyruyng trading market. In Youngcho 35th year (1759, Kunlyung 24th year) Chosun cancolled the city provisions and costed down the budget together with Settlement of the total quantity of the trade. Since this was not maintained properly, the government considered a counterproposal for the violations of the rule but the result was unsatisfactory. Therefore in Youngcho 44th year (1768, Kunlung 33th year) chosun made the law with approval of Ching government and published officially in order to govern Hoyruyng marketing ( 會寧開市定列 ). According to the law, Hoyruyng trading market should be held from October of every year and Ching people could not stay in Chosun more than 20 days. The marketing was to begin with official trading. nest personal trading and then horses trading. Whereas, the government officials from Ching and the local officials of Chosun as well as with the government officials of Chosun were to supervise the marketing. At the begining of the trading Chosun people Sold mainly cows, porcelains, iron pots and Solt while Ching peple came up with fur and silk etc. but the personal marketing did not restrict the nmber of trading items. As a whole the marking was not so benoficial to chosun but the continuous existence of the marketing caused the origin of modern form of marking which was develoed between Chosun and Ching since the middle of 19th contury. In this respect, the historical significance of Hoyruyng trading market can never be slight.;會寧開市는 朝鮮과 淸 사이에 一定한 時期를 定하고 行해진 公貿易으로 朝鮮朝鮮 仁祖6年(天聽2年 1628年) 10月頃 부터 高宗19年(光희 8年 1882年 )까지 淸의 寧古塔( 寧安 )人과 烏剌(吉林省) 人과 250餘年間 行해진 것인데, 朝鮮 豆滿江 中流 國 境 附近에 있는 會寧에서 行하여졌기 때문에 會市 또논 淸市라고도 하였다. 이는 朝鮮 鴨綠江 쪽에서 行해진 中江開市와 함께 朝, 淸貿易에 있어서, 重要한 部分을 차지하고 있었으며 政治 經濟上의 여러 問題를 提기한 바 있었다. 本論文에서는 이 會寧開市를 朝鮮 仁組朝에서 英組朝를 中心으로 하여 時代順으로 다루려고 한다. 會寧의 歷史的 位値를 보면 朝鮮 初期부터 女眞人의 來往이 頻繁한 要樞地帶이었으며 慶源 等 여러 地域으로 통하는 要地이었다. 朝鮮 光海君 時代에는 明의 衰퇴와 後金(淸)勃興의 政勢에서 後金은 明의 經濟封鎖에서 오는 經濟的인 窮乏함을 補充하고자 朝鮮에 會寧交易을 要求하였으나 適當히 拒絶하였다. 이것은 光海君의 實利的인 二重外交政策이 經濟面에도 投映되어 明, 淸 어느 國家와도 交易할 수 없었던 事情에서 招來된 것이라 하겠다. 仁祖時代는 明, 淸 交替期로서 朝鮮과 T淸의 政治的 關係가 成立되자 淸側의 要求에 의하여 會寧開市가 成立되었다. 이 때의 會寧開市는 대체로 丙子胡亂을 分岐点으로 하여 前 後 두 時期로 나누어 展開되고 있다. 즉 前期(仁祖6年∼仁祖14年)는 丁卯胡亂 直後이므로 捕虜의 贖還開市의 形態로 行해졌는데 朝鮮側에서는 政治 經濟的으로 매우 不利한 交易形態였기 때문에 朝鮮에서는 可能한 限 忌避하려고 하였다. 後期( 仁祖14年 以後 )에 는 丙子胡亂으로 一時 中斷되었던 것이 再開된 것인데 淸側에서 無理한 交易物貨를 要求하여 兩國間에 여러 갈등을 자아냈으며 朝鮮側에서는 별로 實利를 못거두었다. 孝宗 顯宗朝의 會寧開市에는 한해에 會寧에 오는 淸人이 千名에 가까웠으며 거기에 따라오는 馬 牛 駝 等의 數도 이와 비숫하였고, 그들이 會寧에 滯留한 日字도 80 乃至 90日 동안이나되어 私貿易이 繁盛하기에 이르렀다. 이에 朝鮮에서는 淸의 官吏에게 馬草와 食糧을 供給하여야 되있기 때문에 接待하는테 莫大한 費用이 들었던 것이다. 英祖時代는 會寧開市에서는 會寧의 守令과 譯官들이 淸의 官吏들에게 米布를 多量으로 私贈하게 되었는데, 이것이 漸次 邑에서 供給하는 邑贈으로 變化되었고 邑贈하는 物種이 年年 增益함에 따라 咸鏡道 百姓들에게 많은 負擔을 주게 되었다. 이에 朝鮮에서는 여러번 淸國에게 이 邑贈에 대한 革罷를 請하거나 會寧開市 定式을 定할 것을 원하였고, 英祖35年( 乾隆24年 1759년 )에는 邑贈을 革罷하고 供費를 탁감하여 貿易總數도 確定하게 되었다. 그러나 그 後 잘 邇行되지 않았으므로 法例 어기는 弊端에 대한 對策도 많이 講究하였지만 별 效果를 보지 못하였다. 그리하여 英祖44年( 乾隆33年 1768年 )에 이르러서는 淸의 承認을 얻어 節目을 整正 刊行하여 會寧開市 定例로 삼았던 것이다. 이 定例를 살펴보면 會寧開市는 每年 10月以後에 行하였고 淸人이 朝鮮에 머물 수 있는 期日은 20日로 限正하고 있다. 交易은 우선 公市가 먼저 열리며 다음에는 私市를 열고 그 다음은 馬市를 行하였으며 淸에서 보내는 差官과 朝鮮의 地方官과 朝鮮朝廷에서 보내는 監使員 等이 立會하여 嚴重히 監視하도록 하고 있다. 開市時의 貿易品은 朝鮮에서 牛 擊 釜 監 等을 提供하고 廳으로 부터는 毛皮 靑布 等을 받고 있다. 그러나 私市에서는 貿易品目을 制限하지 않고 있다. 會寧開市는 대체로 朝鮮側에는 實利를 거두지 못하였지만 綿綿히 그 命脈을 維持하여 19世紀 中葉 以後 朝 . 淸間에 展開된 近代的 貿易形態의 起源을 이루었음을 생각 할 때 그 歷史的 意義는 결코 적지 않았다고 하겠다.
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