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화각공예의 조형적 연구

화각공예의 조형적 연구
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대학원 응용미술학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
Hwa-gak handicraft has been considered an unique field of the painting of wooden handicraft art in which thc traditional korean aesthetic sense is expressed most plainly and purely. There are two main points in this dissertation. One is to analyze in terms of moulding the characteristic technique of Hwa-gak which is unique in Korea and shows well natural features of her, and Hwa-gak Schiematized painting, in which national connsciousness of life is expressed, in order to make clear (a part of) the traditional korean aesthetic sense. The othrr is to dovelope thc modern creative culture of handicraft art which is traditional. Hwa-gak is a pictoria-decorative wooden work of handicraft unque in Korea. THis Hwa-gak is made in this was (Transparent oxhorn is straightened and is cut like the papcrthin sheets. Then Tang cloring pictures are painted on every paper-thin horn sheets. backside of these painted paper-thin horn sheets are attached on the surface of the wooden work of handicraft called Bak-gol in order to decorate. It is supposed that this technique was originaled in the tecnique of painting on the fortoise shell called Bok-chae or Bok-hong in the T'ang dynasty of China. This Hwa-gak handicraft was created with originality of koreans and its genesis is supposed to be the unified Silla period which is former period of Korea. The construction process Hwa-gak is largely divided into three parts which are operation of Bak-gol proohiving charged by a craftsman, of color fixing charged by a painter and of cutting horn sheets. So to speak, it's a division of a labor. Since the construction process was so complicated and was taken much labor, Hwa-gak couldn't be mass-produccd. so the work of handicraft was produced only a small seale. Hwa-gak handicraft work was in demaned mostly by the high class people and ruling class peoples. Since the social rank to which the craftsman belonged and their feeling of life were those of the traditional common people, Hwa-gak Schematized painting shows general sense of beauty of the ordinary Korean people. Their phenominon seems to be caused by these two. One is there remained alive in them the primitive receptivity of the Korean peopLe, although the outward of Life of the ruling class was dominated by confucian norms. The other is the collective consciousness in form of popular beliefs formed the common basis on which the two classes could meet. The popular belief and its view of nature were of animistic character, regarding nature as a magical spare in which all things have souls and believing in the necessity of compliance with nature. Its aesthetic sense originated in the background of these thoughts was complicant toward nature and one with ordinary life, and such sense was coupled with imaginative and symbolic expressions. Schematized painting which is plastic expression of such aesthetic sense, involves immanent meaning. In its erpression, it shows rhythmic impression with the fine curved line. Since an intensity of expression was aimed for in the shape, symbols were more important than reproduction of things. In such a process of synbolization, intimitive instincts enabled simplification of shape and bold distortion of the details and realistic pictorial technique was adopted. The colors of newtral brightness and purity of color are used centering around leading colors such as red, yellow, green, white, black, and among these five, especially real is dominant. In view of harmonization of color, brightness and purity color, hold progressive colors are mainly adopated and mild and light colors are preferred than cold or dark colors in order to express the beauty of color. Dcspite such limitation in coloring as thc technique of Letting the pictures painted on the background to shine through transparent horn sheet, which is terned I-Myn-Dan-Pil-Chae-BUK, adoption of these colors and delicate sense of original colors contribute greatly to giving inspiration to these pictures as animistic space. Thus such factors determine its whole atmosphere. In formation of these moulding factors, there reveals compounded understanding of space in which there dimensional and two-dimensional space consciousness coexist and rationality and irationality are indiserimanated. As regards its composition, instead of following the tradition of leaving empty space conventional to most of the oriental painting, these pictures unify the active space into a single unity, thus producing an even distribution of the picture surface ana a harmonious sense of fullness. Symmetrical composition of schematzed pattern reveals the beauty of unity, sense of stability and balance. Because of the characteristics of Hwa-gak stuff which has certain norm in size, the expression if Hwa-gak pattern has pictorial characteristic which more simple form than that of pure painting is made a design. Between each joined sides of horn sheets, borderlines which are about lmm are decorated. Such picture plane decorated by borderline can be classified into two sorts. One is that each picture plaines, are indepent and thc other is that whole picturc plaines are compose a sense of continuity. Since such aesthetic expression reveals throughly national feeling which inlvolves the view of soule and nature, it is certain that Hwa-gak Schematized painting has its own unique nature of art. owing to the wide difference of temporature and the obvious change of four seasons, the wood in Korea has fine and white grain of wood so that there produced many sorts of wood. Since most artificial factors are element and its own beauty of natural stuffs are greatly taken advantage of, wooden handicraft in Yi dynasty developed in condition of natural circumstances, does reveal most natural characteristic. Hwa-gak handicraft together with larger wear of mother-of-peal, adops bright, pure and fine colors, which is irrelevant to their plaine and raine color taste of wooden handcraft in Yi dynasty. these works of handicraft are used for everyday goods of a woman which are small closet and case, dressing stand, comb, comb box, needle-ruler, spool and fan spokes made of double slips of bamboo. Hwa-gak handcraft unique in Korea which contains such a sense of moulding from a present point of view which traditional handcraft is being actively develped, is needed to be brought up and to be developed as a certain motional handcraft. As the countermeasure, basic industry should be brought up for the active operation of policy and the supply of materials. Besides the condition of social absorption of a skill holder and the system of technical instructioning should be established, and many-sided approach is needed to accomplish scientific study.;本 硏究는 韓國美術의 獨自的이고, 固有한 양식을 개척한 華角工藝의 技法과 民族生活 意識의 表出인 華角紋樣을 造形的으로 分析하여, 華角工藝의 특성을 밝히는 한편, 그 基底에 흐르는 한국 傳統的 美意識을 재발견하여, 현대의 창조적인 工藝 文化를 발전시키려는 밑거름이 되고져하는데에 그 目的이 있다. 華角이란, 투명한 牛角의 裏面에 彩色하여, 그 角紙를 柏骨에 붙여 장식한 木工藝品을 말한다. 이 華角기술은 중국 唐의 玳瑁伏彩技術에서 유래되었다고 하나, 材料面에서 新生面을 개척한 점과, 수성안료인 石彩를 보호하기위해 角紙로 피막을 만들어, 그림의 손상을 막자는 데에서 착안한, 한국 獨創的인 공예이다. 오랜 전통을 가진 華角工藝의 발생 연대는 정확히 알수 없으나, 현재 전해지는 最古의 유물로는, 日本 正倉院의 尺差가 있으며, 이밖에 壬辰亂을 前後한 조선 末期에 제작된 유물들이 전해지고 있다. 華角은 일반 木工藝品보다 규모가 작은, 부녀자의 內堂器物이 대부분이며, 왕실이나 일부 특수층에서 사용된 貴族工藝品이다. 또한 普遍的 美意識이 표현된 華角工藝品이 상류계급에 亭受될 수 있었던 것은, 한국인의 本來的인 感受性이 상류층에게도 내재하고 있었고, 民間信仰이라는 强力한 集團感情形式에 의해, 이 두계급이 合一点을 찾은 데에 기인한 것으로 보인다. 民間信仰의 神觀과 自然觀은 Animism的 성격을 띠어, 自然의 모든 물체에는 精靈이 있는 呪術的 空間이라 생각하여, 人間과 自然이 調和된 삶을 영위하는, 自然에의 순응을 믿었으며, 이와같은 思想的 背景에서 비롯된 華角工藝品 그림의 美觀은, 幻想的이고 象徵적 특색을 지니고 있다. 이러한 美觀에 따라 그려진 그림들은, 韓國人의 民族精神에 의해 選擇, 變容된 民間信仰과 民間說話를 바탕으로 한, 각종 길상문을 사용해서 그렸다. 華角그림이 지니는 조형적 특성으로는, 1) 細筆로 그려진 다양한 線이 目的을 달리하여 사용되어 있으며, 曲線이 主調를 이루고 있어, 面面에 율동감과 따뜻한 운동감을 주며, 黑色의 윤곽선을 사용하여 紋樣의 形을 선명하게 강조하였다. 2) 表現의 강도를 목표로 삼았기 때문에, 物象의 形相을 그리기보다는, 形에 대한 우수한 直觀的 本能을 발휘하여, 形을 單純化하고, 또 는 部分的으로 變形, 象徵化하였다. 3) 얇은 牛角에 잘 받는 赤, 靑, 黃, 白, 黑 5色을 基本으로 하여, 비교적 明渡가 높은 彩度의 中間色을 사용하여 그림을 그렸으며, 草象을 기초로 하여 起畵로서 끝을 맺는 丹靑設彩과정과는 정반대의 특이한 彩畵技法이 사용된다. 또한 붉은 색을 바탕으로 하는 미묘한 빛깔로서, 섬세한 色彩감각을 보여주며, 色相, 明渡, 彩度의 調和를 중심으로, 자극적인 進出色을 많이 썼으며, 線의 경계내에 寒色, 暗色 보다는 暖色, 明色으로 아름다움을 표현하였으니, 이러한 色彩는 그림을 呪術的 空間으로 靈感化시키는 큰 역할을 할 뿐 아니라, 그림전체의 분위기를 결정해주고 있다. 4) 主 材料인 牛角의 크기 제약으로 인하여, 분할된 面面과 面面사이에는, 視覺的인 frame 역할을 하는 界線을 넣었다. 이는 독립적인 面面으로 인식케 하며, 그러면서도 面面과 面面의 전체적인 연속감을 항상 고려했음을 알수있다. 이와같이 平面的, 立體的인 空間意識이 共存하는 複合的인 空間槪念에 의거하여 구성된 面面은, 하나로 통합된 面面의 배치와 더불어 調和된 充滿의 美를 나타내고 있다. 細筆을 사용하여 牛角에 그림을 그리는 表現上의 技法으로 인하여 그림은 전체적으로 부드러우면서 회화적인 美的 감각을 나타내고 있다. 이러한 조형적 특성을 갖는 華角工藝는, 人工的인 裝飾性을 배제하고 自然의 材料, 그 자체의 美를 최대한으로 살린 朝鮮의 木工藝와는 달리, 매우 華麗한 色彩를 구사하고 있는, 螺鈿漆器工藝와 더불어 우리나라 工藝史上 매우 특이한 存在인 것이다. 華角工藝가 한국 傳統工藝로서의 特性을 지녔음에도 불구하고, 民族工藝로써 발전하지 못하는 데에는, 여러 가지 問題點이 있는 것으로 보아, 傳統文化의 주체성 確立이 시급히 요구되는 現 時點에서, 華角工藝의 再評價는 절실하므로, 반드시 추진되어야 할 分野로 생각되었다.
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