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주부의 가사노동관리에 관한 연구
- 주부의 가사노동관리에 관한 연구
- Issue Date
- 대학원 가정관리학과
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- 오늘날 主婦의 家事勞動은 量·質的으로 向上될 수 있는 條件이 多樣하게 주어지고 있으며, 이것을 管理할 수 있는 主婦의 力量이 그 어느때보다 要求되고 있다.
本 硏究에서는 家事勞動의 合理化가 物理的 勞動條件뿐만 아니라, 主婦自身과 家族의 個性을 살린 生活속의 能率을 생각하여 最善의 方法으로 合理化되어야 한다는데 重點을 두고, 主婦의 家事勞動 管理를 分析함으로써 家事勞動 內容中 非合理的인 것에서 合理化의 方向을 究明하고자 하는데 그 目的이 있다.
따라서 家事勞動의 物理的 諸條件과 家庭管理의 全過政이 全體的으로 考慮되어져야 하겠으나, 本 硏究에서는 다음과 같은 問題에 限定시켜 究明하고자 한다.
첫째, 家事勞動器機의 保有·使用·期待 및 立式作業臺의 保有는 어느정도인가?
둘째, 家事勞動의 分擔은 어떻게 되고 있는가?
셋째, 家事勞動의 組織化는 어떻게 되고 있는가? 이것은 主婦의 年齡, 學歷, 住居形態, 女子數, 月收入, 雇傭人 有無別로 어떠한 差異가 있는가?
以上과 같은 硏究를 爲해 관련된 文獻과 質問紙를 통한 調査結果를 資料로 삼았으며, 특히 本 硏究에서 中心을 두고 있는 主婦의 家事勞動 組織化에 關한 質問紙의 問項은 家事의 標準化·配定化·規則化·配列化의 4個 要因으로 構成된 OAI(Organizational Activities Index)를 使用하였다. 硏究對象은 2名以上의 女子를 둔 家庭主婦 324名이었고, 質問紙는 初·中·高等學校에 다니고 있는 그들의 女子를 通해 配付하여 調査하였다. 本 調査에 依한 結果를 要約하면 다음과 같다.
1. 家事勞動 관련 小型電氣器機 및 計量器具의 保有率은 대체로 높지만, 主婦의 時間과 에너지의 消耗가 많은 洗濯과 淸掃用器機 및 立式作業臺의 保有率은 낮았다. 保有率이 높은 器機가 그 使用率과 期待率에 있어서 반드시 높다고 할 수는 없으며, 特히 計量器具의 使用率과 期待率이 낮은 반면 냉장고·세탁기·가스레인지등은 높은 比率을 보였다.
2. 대부분의 家事勞動은 主婦에게 集中되어 있었고 他家族員의 協助는 낮았다. 家事의 內容에 따른 性差에 依한 分擔이 현저하게 나타났으며, 洗濯과 淸掃는 家族外人에게 分擔하는 傾向이 많았다.
3. 家事勞動의 組織化에서 主婦들이 가장 높은 肯定的 反應을 나타낸 것은 標準化要因이며 學歷·月收入·子女數·雇傭人 有無別로 差異가 있었다. 配定化要因은 매우 낮은 肯定的 反應을 나타냈으며 主婦의 學歷에서만 差異가 있었다. 規則化要因은 配定化要因보다는 약간 높은 肯定的反應이며 主婦의 學歷·月收入에 따라 差異가 있었다. 配列化要因은 否定的 反應으로 主婦의 學歷·月收入·子女數·雇傭人 有無別로 差異가 있었다.;In modern home homemakers are offered a various opportunities to improve the conditions of household works in both way of quality and quantity, and abilities of homemakers are most required to meet efficient management of the those.
The purpose of this study is to emphasize that the best method of rationalization of household works could be obtained not only by improvement of physical conditions, but also the promotion of emotional conditions of homemakers and family members; and to identify the rational aspects from the irrational aspects through the analysis of the management of homemakers' household works.
Therefore, the diverse physical conditions of household works and all processes of management should be generally considered; however, in this study the following problemes are restricted in pursuing the concrete analysis of specific aspects:
1. The extent of possession, using and expectation of household equipments and possession of the work surfaces.
2. The distribution of household works and its situation.
3. The organization of household works and its extent of difference by age, education, type of house, number of children, monthly income and employees.
The materials used for this study have been derived from the reference books and the result of questionaires; and especially the questionaires on organization of the homemakers' household works which is major part of this study are based on the OAl (Organizational Activities Index) Which are composed of following four factors - task standardization, assignment, regularization and arrangement. The objectives of this study are 324 fulltime homemakers, each of whom had two or more children, and the questionaires were distributed to the homemakers through their children who are attending primary, middle and high school.
The result are summarized as follows:
1. The possession of the small electric equipment and measuring instrument are so high in rate; however, the washers, cleaners, and work surfaces are so scantly held by those homes which costs plenty of time and energy for the homemakers. The high rated possession of the equipment is never to say they are so expected or used frequently, and especially the using and expectation of those measuring instrument shows very low in rate, but refrigelators, washing machines and gas ranges show higher.
2. Most of household works are concentrated to the homemakers and there is a little cooperation from other members of the family for the works. According to contents of household works there was distinctive distribution by sex role, and the laundry and cleaning works have been largely done by the members out of family.
3. The organization of household works that homemakers showed most affirmative answer was the factor of standardization; and, further, there were significant differences in education, monthly income, number of children and employees. The factor of assignment showed very low in the affirmative answer, and there was a significant difference only in education. The factor of regularization was a little higher in the affirmative answer than assignment, and there were significant differences in education, and monthly income. The factor of arrangement showed nagative answer there were significant defferences in education, number of children, monthly income and employees.
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