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음악계 특수학교의 세계적 추세와 그 적용 가능성에 관한 연구
- 음악계 특수학교의 세계적 추세와 그 적용 가능성에 관한 연구
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- 교육대학원 음악교육전공
- 이화여자대학교 교육대학원
- 우리나라에 서양음악이 처음으로 도입된 것은 19C말경이며 이것이 뿌리를 박게 된 것은 20C에 막 들어선 190년(광무4년)에 군악대가 창설되면서 부터인데 대학수준의 음악교육은 이화여자전문학교 문리과에 음악과가 1925년에 설치된 것을 효시로 서울대학교, 연세대학교 등 종합대학내의 음악대학에서 음악연주가 및 음악교육가를 양성하고 있다.
우리나라 대부분의 음악대학의 설립목적은 지도자적 인격과 예술을 겸비한 음악인을 양성하는 것으로서 대학수준에서 음악을 전공하는데는 다음과 같은 세가지 방향이 있을 수 있다. 첫째 뛰어난 음악연주가의 양성, 둘째 음악이론가의 양성, 셋째 우수한 음악교사의 양성 등 바로 그것이다.
구미선진 여러 나라에는 오래전부터 콘서바토리와 같은 독립된 음악학교, 음악계 특수학교가 있어서 음악연주가를 양성하고 있으며 음악이론가나 음악교육가는 거의가 음악대학이나 음악학교(School of Music)에 소속시켜 교육을 하고 있다.
그러나 아직 우리나라는 그러한 독립된 음악학교가 없는 형편이며 오직 종합대학내의 음악대학에서 모두를 포함하여 교육하고 있다. 이러한 선진국의 추세를 참고하거나 우리의 실정을 감안하여 볼 때 우리나라 음악문화 향상을 위하여는 어떠한 음악대학 어떠한 독립된 음악학교가 설립되어 음악연주가, 음악이론가, 음악교육가를 양성하여야 할 것인지를 밝혀 보려는데 목적을 두고 국내외 전문기관의 자료분석과 음악교수, 일반음악인, 음대학생 등을 대상으로 한 의견조사결과를 기초로 우리나라 음악대학의 현황을 밝혀보고 외국의 음악학교 및 음악대학의 현황을 밝혀 봄으로써 국내외 음악대학(음악학교 포함)을 비교하여 우리나라 전문음악인 양성을 위한 잠정적 모형을 제시하여 보고자 하는 것이다.
의견조사 결과에서도 나타난 것과 같이 음악대학의 체제 변경을 전체 반 이상인 약 60%정도가 찬성하고 있으며 현재 교과과정의 문제에서도 음악대학의 특수성을 이해하고 감안하여 교양과목의 양을 줄이는 한편 전공과정의 폭을 넓히고 음악이론가나 음악교육가의 양성은 종합대학내의 음악대학에 소속시켜 교육하는 방향으로 제시되고 있다.
따라서 본 연구에서 조사한 결과로 비록 가설적인 것이지만 제안해 보면 다음과 같다.
첫째 우리나라에도 음악연주가 양성을 위하여는 독립된 음악학교가 갖추어져 있어야 하겠다.
둘째 만약 현시점에서 교수진의 확보, 운영시설 및 졸업생의 사회적 진출 등 큰 문제로 대두되어지는 어려운 점이 있다면 현재 종합대학의 음악대학에서 음악연주가, 음악이론가, 음악교육가가 양성되어 질 수 있도록 교육과정상의 개편이 되어야 할 것이다. 교육과목의 이수시간보다는 다양한 선택과목과 전공과목을 신설하고 부전공제를 실시하도록 하며 일률적인 교과과정을 따르지 않고 개개인의 능력과 목표를 존중하여 음악연주가, 음악이론가, 음악교육가 등 거기에 맞는 극히 다양한 교과과정이 마련되어져 전문적인 학업을 할 수 있도록 고안되어야 하겠다.
따라서 이상의 점들이 개선되어 진다면 지금보다 우리나라 음악문화 향상에 많은 발전이 있을 것으로 기대되는 바이다.;A survey was conducted to evaluate knowledge about health and the level of efforts toward promoting health of the community people and to analyze the health promotion behavior related factors, in order to provide basic materials for developing a national health activities from October to December, 1998. The study population was 1,258 people above 20 years of age in Taegu city and Kyungsangbuk-do province.
The following are summaries of findings:
1) The following general characteristics of those surveged showed that women were 53% ; those in their 30s, 29.1%; married, 89.4%; those with two children, 41.9%; high school graduate, 34.3%; those who did not graduate from elementary school, 26.1%; Buddhist, 42.4%; those who lived around the city, 62.9%; housewives, 27.3%; technicians, 19.6%; and those with an average monthly income of 100-149 ten thousand won, 31.2%. The percentages were higher than those of other groups.
2) When the subjects were asked to subjectively evaluate their own health state, 36.7% responded as being healthy; 23.6%, as unhealthy: And specifically 39.5% of the men, 52.2% in their 30s, 40.1% of those married, 59.5% of those with one child, 62.6% of those graduated from college or above, 57.7% of Christians, 41.8% of those who lived around the city, 58.9% of government workers and those with average monthly income of 200-249ten thousand won responded as being healthy. The percentages were higher than those of other groups. All parameters were statistically significant.
3) Forty-four percent had and 56% did not have experience receiving medical services for a period of last one month. Specifically, there was sigruficance in the fact that the older the person, the more children one had and the lower the educational level, the more medical services were used as well as by women and singles. Furthermore, the fact that the percentages of Buddhist, housewives, and those with an average monthly income less than 99 ten thousand won who received medical services were significantly higher than those of other groups.
4) When asked to subjectively evaluate their health according their use of medical services, those who considered themselves unhealthy and did use medical services were surprising more than those healthy and did not use medical services.
5) Community people scored an average of 35.62?3.62(i.e., converted to 74.2 based on a perfect score of 100points) out of a perfect score of 48. There was significance in the fact that the higher the education level and average monthly income, the more they knew about health as well as by those of age 60 and above and with more than four children, and those who were Christian, lived near the province, and had government jobs.
6) The healthier the people, the more they knew about health as well as by those who did not use medical services.
7) The health promotion behavior level scored 15.07?2.61(Converted to 71.5 points based on a perfect score of 100) out of the perfect score of 21. Specifically, the fact, that the older the person, the more children one had and the lower the educational level as well as for women, singles, Buddhist, housewives, and those with an average monthly income less than 99ten thousand won, the level was significantly higher than those in other groups.
8) Those who were unhealthy and those who used medical services as compared with those who did not showed significantly high level of health promotion behavior level.
9) Health promotion behaviors, age and present area of residence were significant variables affecting the use of medical services.
10) The efforts to improve health were ranked from the frequent to the seldom as follows: oral hygienes, no smoking, no drinking, diet, sleep, physical examination, and exercise. Smoking was significantly related to the following parameters: the sex, marital status, educational level, religion, present area of residence, number of children, job, and average monthly income. Oral hygiene and exercise were significantly related to all the mentioned parameters; diet to all parameters except the sex and marital status; sleep to all parameters except the sex; and physical examination to all parameters except religion.
11) The worse health showed significantly high level of smoking, drinking and physical examination. An average health condition had high levels of exercise and diet; the healthier showed significant high levels of oral hygienes and sleep, though insignificant.
12) Lower the health knowledge, high levels of smoking and drinking existed. Those with little health knowledge had higher diet, sleep, and health examinations than those in other districts, though insignificant.
13) The use of medical services was high in relation to smoking, drinking, diet and physical examination parameters; no use of medical services was high in relation to exercise, sleep, oral hygiene parameters, though insignificant.
14) The factors which significantly affected health condition were diseases, educational level, age, health knowledge, present area of residence, job, marital status, and average monthly income.
15) The factors which significantly affected health knowledge were age, educational level, health status, present area of residence, average monthly income, and health promotion behavior. The coefficient of multiple determination is 0.224.
16) Factors significantly affecting the efforts to improve health were the sex, disease, level of health knowledge, number of children, religion, age, present area of residence, job, educational level and health status. The explain coefficient of multiple determination is 0.204.
17) The level of health knowledge was inversely related to the level of effort to improve health, the sex, religion, present area of address, use of medical services parameters and was directly related to the age, educational level, average monthly family income, and health status parameters. The level of effort toward improving health was inversely related to the sex, educational level, religion, and health status parameters and directly related to the marital status, number of children, and use of medical services parameters.
In conclusion, the level of effort toward improving health and the level of health knowledge of those in a community are quite low. Particularly, the low effort towards improving health requires an urgent need to enact a national health promotion law for entering the age of good health promotion.
Programs to promote health improvement should be developed by considering the characteristics and the generation of the people, particularly, of those with low education, technicians and workers, laborers, low-income class, and those in their 20's etc. so that associated government departments, health and medical organizations, health and medical experts, research institutes and societies, and those who are involved in media can direct their deep interest on establishing a national health promotion programs that will be the basis for a better life for our citizens.
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