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초등학생의 안전교육 경험에 따른 사고위험행동 수준

Title
초등학생의 안전교육 경험에 따른 사고위험행동 수준
Other Titles
A Study on Risk Behavior by the Experience of Safety education of Elementary School Students : Focus on recreation and sports safety
Authors
정혜인
Issue Date
2008
Department/Major
대학원 보건교육학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
어린이는 안전에 대한 지식이나 대처능력이 부족하고 지각능력이 충분하게 발달하지 못한 시기이기 때문에 이로 인한 손상이나 사망률이 높다. 특히 초등학교 고학년의 경우 교육을 통해 안전에 대한 지식을 보다 많이 습득하지만 사고위험행동 또한 늘어나게 되어 실제적으로 사고발생은 줄어들지 않는 경향을 나타낸다. 이에 본 연구에서는 최근 증가하고 있는 놀이·스포츠사고를 중심으로 안전교육 경험에 따른 놀이·스포츠사고 위험행동 수준을 분석하고, 이를 중심으로 놀이·스포츠사고 위험행동에 영향을 미치는 교육적 요인 및 심리사회적 요인을 규명함으로써 놀이·스포츠사고 예방을 위한 근거자료를 제공하고자 하였다. 이를 위해 서울지역 4개 초등학교 5, 6학년 24개 학급의 689명의 학생을 대상으로 조사를 실시하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 1. 지난 1년간 놀이·스포츠사고 경험이 있는 학생은 56.4%로 절반 이상을 차지했으며, 61.6%가 간단한 응급처치를 받은 정도의 경미한 사고라고 답한 반면 29.6%는 병의원에 입원하여 치료를 받은 것으로 나타났다. 바퀴달린 탈 것으로 인한 사고가 33.5%로 가장 높았으며, 놀이시설물로 인한 사고(17.4%), 구기운동으로 인한 사고(16.5%) 순으로 높게 나타났다. 2. 학교 내 안전교육 경험 빈도는 학기당 1~2회가 가장 높았으며 주 1~2회 이상 안전교육을 받은 경험은 매우 낮았다. 놀이·스포츠안전교육의 경우 전혀 받은 경험이 없는 경우도 16.9%였다. 51.5%가 정규교과 수업 시간에 실시되고 있었으나, 절반가량이 외부 강사에 의존하고 있었으며, 주로 시청각 자료를 활용한 교육을 실시하고 있었다. 화재안전(75.5%)과 교통안전(74.0%)에 대한 교육이 월등히 많았으며, 나머지 영역에 대해서는 상대적으로 매우 낮게 교육되고 있었다. 3. 가정 내 안전교육 빈도는 약간 있음이 50.3%로 가장 많았지만 거의 없거나 전혀 없는 경우도 17.7%였으며, 대부분 부모님(86.6%)에 의해 교육 받고 있었다. 교육내용은 교통안전이 71.9%로 월등히 높았지만 비교적 대부분의 영역을 교육하고 있었다. 4. 연구대상자의 절반 이상이 안전교육의 필요성에 대해서 인식하고 있었으며 90% 가량이 배운 내용을 실천하고 있었으나, 자신의 실천도를 보통이라고 답한 학생이 40.9%로 가장 많은 비율을 차지하고 있었다. 5. 위험행동 수준을 살펴보면, 바퀴달린 탈 것과 관련된 위험행동 평균점수가 가장 높았다. 바퀴달린 탈 것과 관련된 하부 행동습관 중 기구를 탄 채 횡단보도를 건너는 행동에 대한 점수가 가장 높았고, 핸들을 한손으로 잡거나 잡지 않은 채로 자전거를 타는 행동, 인라인스케이트를 타고 계단을 오르내리는 행동 순으로 점수가 높았다. 6. 인구사회학적 특성에 따른 위험행동 수준을 살펴보면, 학년이 높을수록(p<0.01), 남자가 여자에 비해(p<0.001) 위험행동 수준이 높았으며 그 차이는 통계학적으로 유의하였다. 7. 심리사회학적 특성에 따른 위험행동 수준을 살펴보면, 성격성향에 따라 위험행동 수준에 차이를 보였는데 신중하지 못함(p<0.05), 산만함(p<0.001), 독립심이 강함(p<0.001), 승부욕이 강함(p<0.01), 모험지향적임(p<0.001), 쉽게 좌절함(p<0.001)의 성격성향을 가진 학생에게서 위험행동 점수가 높았다. 가족관계는 나쁠수록 위험행동 수준이 높게 나타난 반면(p<0.05), 친구관계는 좋을수록 위험행동 수준이 높았다(p<0.05). 또한 안전에 대한 관심도가 낮을수록 위험행동 수준이 높았으나, 이는 가족의 안전관심도(p<0.05)와 친구의 안전관심도(p<0.05), 본인의 안전관심도(p<0.001)에서 통계학적으로 유의한 결과를 보였다. 8. 안전교육의 필요성에 대한 인식이 높을수록(p<0.001), 안전교육 내용에 대한 실천도가 높을수록(p<0.001) 위험행동 수준이 낮았다. 9. 학교 내 안전교육 경험 빈도가 주 1회 이상인 경우가 연 1회 미만인 경우에 비해 위험행동 수준은 낮았으나, 이는 안전교육 관련 행사 경험(p<0.05)에 대해서만 통계학적으로 유의한 차이를 보였다. 10. 놀이·스포츠사고 위험행동에 가장 많은 영향을 미치는 요인은 학습내용실천도로 그 영향력은 5.9%였으며, 성별(4.8%), 나의 안전관심도(1.5%), 친구관계(1.4%), 학년(1.2%), 가족관계(0.7%)가 그 뒤를 이었다. 즉, 학습내용의 실천도가 낮을수록, 여자보다는 남자가, 나의 안전관심도가 낮을수록, 친구관계가 좋을수록, 학년이 높을수록, 가족관계가 나쁠수록 위험행동 수준은 높게 나타났다. 이에 대한 총 분산설명력은 14.8%로 초등학교 어린이들의 위험행동에 약 15% 정도 기여하는 것을 알 수 있었다. 11. 위험행동과 사고발생과의 관련성을 살펴보면, 사고 경험이 있는 경우가 위험행동 수준이 높았으며(p<0.001), 위험행동 수준이 높을수록 손상중증도도 높았다(p<0.05).;Accident is a public health related matter that can occur regardless of age and gender, and specifically in case of children, as they are in a stage where knowledge and measures-taking ability on safety are deficient and recognition ability is not sufficiently developed, the rates of injury or death are high. Particularly in case of grade schoolers of higher grades, though they may acquire more knowledge on safety through education, accident occurrence does not show any tendency of reduction in practice since accident risk behaviors increase as well. Therefore, this research purported to analyze the levels of recreation/sports accident risk behaviors which are increasing recently, and provide base data to prevent recreation/sports accidents in the future by clarifying human oriented factors that affect recreation/sports accident risk behaviors, based on safety education experiences To that end, questionnaire survey was performed on 689 students from 24 classes of 5th and 6th grades of 4 elementary schools in Seoul region, and the following results were obtained. 1. The ratio of students with recreation/sports accident experience for the last one year, 56.4%, occupied over half, and over half those students experienced more than twice. In addition, it was shown that while 61.6% replied that the accidents were only minor ones which required them simple first-aid, 29.6%were hospitalized for treatment. As for accident cause factors, accidents by wheeled carriers, 33.5%, took up the highest ratio, followed by recreation facility, 17.4% and accidents during ball game, 16.5%. 2. As for safety education experience frequency in school, once or twice per semester was of the highest ratio, and frequency of over once or twice a week was shown very low. Though 51.5% of the safety educations in school were conducted during regular curriculum class hours, half of them were dependent on outside lecturers. Among the safety education contents, fire safety(75.5%) and transportation safety(74.0%) were higher by far, but the education amounts in the rest sectors were relatively very low. As for education conducting methods, visual audio educations were the most, with safety related events marking 32.8%, however test/practicing education(13.2%) or experience based education(3.8%) were shown relatively low. 3. As for the frequency of safety education the research subjects experienced in their home, the answer of 'a few', 50.3%, was the most, when that of 'little' or 'none', 17.7%, was shown high as well, of which educations were administered mostly by their parents(86.8%). The contents covered most were transportation safety, 71.9%, which was shown high by far, but by and large most of the sectors were covered evenly. As for the safety education experienced at places other than school or home, the answer of 'a few' was the most, and students that answered 'none' also were as high as 13.9%. 4. Over half the research subjects recognized the necessity of safety education, and about 90% are practicing what they learned, but the ratio of students that answered they were practicing only some of what they learned, 40.9%, was shown highest. 5. For a look into the category of the risk behavior of the research subjects, wheeled-carrier related risk behavior average points were the highest. Among the sub-behavior practices related to wheeled carriers, the points of crossing pedestrian crossings while riding instruments were the highest, and the points that followed were the behavior of riding bicycle while grabbing the handle with only one hand or while not grabbing the handle, and the behavior of going up and down the stairs while riding inline skate. Among recreation facility related risk behaviors, the points for the behavior practices going up the slide directly upon it instead of going up though the stairs when climbing playground slide, and the next highest is jumping out from a moving swing. In addition, the behavior of running around in swimming pool and that of enjoying the amusement not considering their own physical strength level were shown high points. 6. When looking into the risk behavior level by the demographic characteristics of the research subject, students of higher grade(p<0.01) and girls than boys(p<0.001) were shown higher risk behavior levels. 7. To look into the risk behavior level by the psychological characteristics of the research subjects, risk behavior levels were different depending on characteristics: risk behavior levels were high among students not cautious(p<0.05), distractive(p<0.001), independent(p<0.001), contentious(p<0.01), venturesome(p<0.001) and frustration-driven(p<0.001). As for the levels of risk behavior level as to the relations with people around, while the worse the family relations are, the higher the risk behavior levels are(p<0.05), the better the friend relations are, the higher the risk behavior level becomes(p<0.05). Also the lower the interest in safety, the higher risk behavior level become(p<0.05), and the results were statistically significant only on the friends' interest in safety(p<0.05) and the student's own interest in safety(p<0.001). 8. As for the risk behavior level by the safety education of the research subject, the groups that constantly experienced safety education have shown lower risk behavior level compared to those that experienced irregularly, however it was not statistically significant. The higher safety education necessity recognitions were(p<0.001) and the higher the ratio of practicing the safety education contents(p<0.001), the lower the risk behavior levels were. 9. The cases with safety educations in school over once a week have shown lower risk behavior level compared to those with safety educations once a year, but it was statistically significant only for the safety education related experiences(p<0.05). 10. The human related characteristics that affect risk behaviors were shown to be the ratio of practicing the safety education contents, gender, the subject's own interest in safety, friend relations, grade and family relations. In other words, accidents risk behavior levels were higher with lower ratio of practicing the safety education contents(p<0.001), boys than girls(p<0.001), lower subject's own interest in safety(p<0.01), better friend relations(p<0.01), higher grade(p<0.01) and worse family relations(p<0.05). 11. As for the correlations between risk behavior and accident occurrence, risk behavior levels were higher among cases with accident experience than those with none, and it was statistically significant in all sectors(p<0.01).
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