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陶磁製 떡살에 나타난 紋樣硏究

Title
陶磁製 떡살에 나타난 紋樣硏究
Other Titles
(A) Study on patterns appeared in ceramic molds of rice cake
Authors
韓香林.
Issue Date
1981
Department/Major
대학원 도예과
Keywords
도자제떡살문양
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
本 硏究는 "떡살(餠型)"을 대상으로 채택하여 그 중에서도 陶磁製 떡살을 찾아 보았다. 李朝時代 民俗工藝는 民族的인 特性과 生活의 傳統을 나타내는 소박함이 庶民들의 日常用具에까지 스며들어 있기 때문에 李朝의 독자적인 아름다움을 表現하고 있다. 우리나라에서는 吉할때나 親交가 必要할 때마다 또 時節에 따라 별미로운 떡을 만들어서 즐겨왔다. 이러한 떡에 찍는 떡살은 주로 주방의 영역에서 使用하여 온 必需品이었기 때문에 女人들과 깊은 관련이 있었으며 그것은 떡살의 民具化를 가져오게 하였다. 그만큼 우리 생활과 떡의 관계는 긴밀하며 떡 하나하나에 있는 떡살무늬는 사람들이 살아오면서 느낀 여러 가지의 生活樣式을 무의식중에 表現한 것이라 생각된다. 그러나 떡살의 保存價値에 對한 인식부족과 戰亂 등으로 인한 紛失이 많아 多量의 遺品은 蒐集하기가 어려웠으나 蒐集된 李朝 後期의 資料에 根據를 두었다. 硏究方法은 陶磁製떡살을 形態와 紋樣別로 分類하였고 他 民藝品에 나타난 紋樣과의 비교·分析을 통하여 同時代의 紋樣과 橫的인 考察을 하려 하였다. 分類된 떡살의 形態는 円形틀판이 가장 많았고 方形틀판, 長形틀판 그리고 円形과 方形의 複合形인 兩面形態와 楕円形이 드물게 있다. 손잡이의 形態k는 위로 向해 경사진 円形과 角이 진 形으로 나뉘었다. 또 紋樣의 種類를 보면 線을 이용한 빗살무늬에서부터 꽃을 도안화시킨 花紋, 人間의 念願을 나타낸 吉祥文字紋과 幾何紋, 天象紋, 鳥獸紋 그리고 기타 生活주변을 表現한 格子紋 等에 이르기까지 많은 紋樣들이 使用되었다. 他 民藝品인 刺繡·金箔·木製떡살에 나타난 문양과의 比較에서는 生活感情이 함축된 意味, 즉 壽福·長生과 多男·富貴에 對한 祈願이 깃들여져 있는 점을 發見할 수 있었다. 陶磁떡살은 떡의 장식과 아울러 쓸모있는 실용성을 바탕으로 하여 무늬를 새기는 틀판과 이를 包含한 틀 그리고 손잡이로 이루어졌으며, "印"으로서의 機能的인 用途에 맞도록 水飛→成形→施紋→초벌구이→施釉→재벌구이의 과정을 通해서 만들어졌다. 民衆과 가까이 호흡을 하여 온 民藝品 中의 하나인 陶磁떡살은 소박하고 단순하면서도 그 內面에 깊은 뜻을 담고 있으면서 庶民生活과 함께 이어져 오던 것이 時代가 바꿈에 따라 그 용도를 잃고 우리에게서 잊혀져 가고 있는데 本 硏究의 대상으로 삼아 考察해 본 것은 陶磁떡살의 우수한 美를 再發見하려는 계기를 마련하는데 있다. 따라서 앞으로 우리의 固有傳統을 保存해 가면서 그것을 소화·흡수하여 現代生活에 적합하도록 독자적인 傳統紋樣을 開發해 나가는데 조금이나마 도움이 되고자 本 論文의 연구를 시도하여 본 것이다.;It is intended in the present paper to inquire into "rice cake pattern molds" with special reference to ceramic molds which were used to press patterns into rice cake during the period of the Yi Dynasty. The simplicity of folk crafts of the Yi Dynasty symbolizes national characteristics and tradition of life. It can be seen in utensils of daily use of the people and expresses the unique beauty of the Dynasty. On every auspicious occasion or when a close friendship is felt necessary and at every seasonal change, the people used to enjoy themselves by making tasty rice cake in our country. The molds used to press patterns into rice cake were the necessities of the kitchen and therefore they were closely related to women. This implies that there existed a close relationship between the life of the people and rice cake. A pattern appeared in every rice cake may he considered as a unconscious expression of various ways of life followed by the people during the Yi Dynasty. It is regrettable, however, that a great deal of the rice cake pattern molds were either destroyed or missing due to lack of understanding of the value of preserving them and wars. Therefore it was very difficult to collect as many relics as intended and the present study was carried out based on the data collected from those of the latter period of the Yi Dynasty. The ceramic pattern molds of rice cake were classified by form and pattern to compare analytically with those patterns appeared in other folk crafts, thereby attempted to investigate contemporary patterns. The classified pattern molds showed a majority in number of round form while square, long square and the composite of round and square were rare. The handle of the pattern molds was divided largely into two shapes, coniform and angular. The kinds of patterns are varigated; i.e. patterns of the teeth or a comb applying the line, flower patterns, auspicious silln character patterns symholizing man's dearest wish, geometrical patterns, patterns of the universe, bird and breast patterns. gridiron and roof patterns which express the environs of daily life. In comparing with patterns appeared in other folk cracts, such as embroidery, gold leaf and wooden molds, it could be seen that the prayer for long Iife, happiness and peace, bearing many sons, riches and honors were implied in the pattern molds of rice cake. The ceramic pattern molds consist of mold surface, impressing patterns, frame and handle which are designed in due consideration of the decoration of rice cake and practical use. They were made suitable to be used as "stamps" through the process of dressing, molding, pattern designing, rough baking, polishing and rebaking. The ceramic pattern molds of rice cake which once enjoyed prosperity among the people as one of the folk crafts have lost their value of use dnd become buried in oblivion as the times change. It is felt somewhat meaningful, therefore, to rediscover the excellent beauty of ceramic pattern molds of rice cake with this study as a momentum. It is hoped that this study would be of any help in developing new yet unique patterns suitable to our modern life by making the best use of those prevailed during the period of the Yi Dynasty.
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