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文人畵의 史的考察

Title
文人畵의 史的考察
Other Titles
Research on literator's paintings from historical point of view
Authors
劉槿鄕
Issue Date
1982
Department/Major
대학원 회화학과
Keywords
문인화사적고찰사상적 배경
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
국 영문초록 수록(劉槿鄕);우리는 文人畵의 包括的 意味는 잘알고 있으면서 細部的인 文人畵의 發生과 思想的 背景 그리고 哲學的 根據등은 잘 알지 못하고 있다. 더구나 韓國文人畵의 歷史的 事實과 中國과의 關係性을 檢討하면서 理論을 展開한 論文이나 著書는 아무것도 없다. 이 論考는 文人畵의 出現과 思想的 背景 그리고 發展過程과 韓國에 있어서의 影響을 살펴 보았다. 文人畵는 東洋畵에 있어서 가장 理智的인 思想을 構成하여 그것을 畵面에 表現하는 것이다. 또 가장 學識이 높은 文人 士大夫들에 依하여 그려진 그림이기 때문에 內的인 價値가 크고 思想性이 豊富한 그림이다. 文人畵의 發生은 六朝時代부터 氣韻論을 中心으로 發生하여 唐代에 文學과 儒學思想을 背景으로 하여 作品上에 나타나고 五代를 거쳐 宋代에 이르러서는 性理學과 陽明學의 發展으로 文同, 蘇東坡, 黃山谷 등에 依하여 發達되고 미불에 依하여 한 樣式이 形成되었다. 다른 한편으로 文人畵는 禪僧들의 높은 人格에 依하여 나타난 禪畵를 빼 놓을 수 없다. 즉 佛敎 理念에서 나온 參禪思想에 依하여 發生되는 이 畵風은 自由奔放한 作家의 思想으로 이루어진 禪畵로 文人畵의 一面을 장식하였다. 文人畵는 이와같이 禪家思想과 儒學의 性理學, 道家의 自然主義 思想이 合一되어 나타나는 藝術論的인 側面과 歷史的인 觀點 두가지로 살펴 볼 수 있다. 즉, 氣韻論의 解釋을 通하여 氣에 관한 時代的인 解釋의 差異를 比較하여 보고 다음에는 佛敎의 宗派인 禪宗의 思想이 끼친 影響을 살펴 보았다. 그리고 歷史的 變化過程은 六朝時代에 山水論에 있어서의 自然主義의 發展과 謝赫등의 氣韻論의 主要性에 依하여 文氣畵가 出現하였고 唐代에 와서는 吳道子의 水墨畵에 依한 影響을 王維등이 作品上에 始作함으로 文人畵가 發生하게 된다. 그의 畵風은 五代의 荊造와 그의 弟子인 董源, 巨然등에서 文人畵風이 形成되어 後에 江南의 溫和한 氣候風土속에서 그림을 그렸던 미불이 미점준법이라는 새로운 畵風을 形成하여 文人畵 發展은 繼續된다. 元代의 文人畵는 조우부 등의 漢民族의 矜持를 向한 復古主義的인 態度에서 確立된 元의 四大家들의 獨立된 文人畵風이 形成되어 특이한 文人畵風이 出現하며, 明代에 와서는 江南地方에서 形成된 吳派의 文人畵가 盛行하여 沈石田, 文徵明, 董其昌 等이 出現하였다. 淸代의 文人畵는 明遺民畵派들인 金陵八怪들의 革新的인 畵風이 出現하여 現代文人畵의 近時가 되었으며 이들의 影響으로 陽州八怪가 出現한 反面 傳統的인 文人畵는 淸初의 四王들에 依하여 結束된다. 韓國에서 文人畵의 始作은 新羅 末頃 唐에서 留學하고 돌아온 知識人들에서 부터 라고 하지만 단지 推測일 뿐이고 事實上 文人畵가 認識되기 始作한 것은 高麗末 부터이다. 高麗의 선비들이 政治的 關係나 留學등으로 元에 머무르는 동안 元의 文人畵家들의 影響을 받게 되었다. 特히 조우부등의 當時 繪畵理論과 그 精力이 대단한 속에서 忠宣王(高麗26代王, 燕京에 萬卷堂설치)과 李齊腎(1287∼1367) 등의 繪畵交流는 韓國文人畵의 開始를 暗示하였다. 李朝 初期에 와서 비로서 作品上에 文人畵가 나타나기 始作하였다. 北宋末에 始作되었던 미불의 文人畵風이 뒤늦게 韓國作家들의 作品上에 나타나게 되었고 아울러 墨竹이나 墨梅, 墨蘭, 墨葡萄등이 貴族 또는 士大夫들 間에 그려지기 始作하였다. 朝鮮 中期 以後부터는 文人畵風이 크게 普及되어 中國에서 계속 들어오는 새로운 文人畵風과 이미 들어와서 繼續되는 文人畵風이 잘 造化되면서 새로운 韓國의 文人畵을 造成하였다. 例로서 정선같은 畵家를 들수 있겠다. 朝鮮朝末에는 中國의 實學의 影響을 받은 韓國의 實學者들이 頻煩한 北京의 往來로 새로운 藝術觀을 導入하여 韓國繪畵에 至大한 影響을 주게 된다. 즉, 揚州八怪의 影響등이 韓國에 들어오고 朴齊家, 金正喜等의 進取的 文人들이 繪畵를 새롭게 認識하므로 韓國의 文人畵檀이 크게 發展하여 韓國現代文人畵를 形成하였다.;When we speak of "Literator's Paintings," we all know its comprehensive meanings, however, we are not sure of its genesis, its ideological background and its philosophical basis ; moreover, we have absolutely no treatise or books that deploy an explicit theory developed by exploring how the Korean literator's paintings have been affected by the historical events and/or the Sino-Korean relations. Therefore, I have made a research on "Literator's Paintings," looking into its genesis, its ideological background, its growth, and finally its influence to that of Korea. Literator's painting is a style of oriental paintings. it is to compose the most intellectual idea and thereafter to transpose or express it on the canvas. It is a style of paintings □rawn by those learned literators or men of nobility, thus it contains intrinsic value and rich thoughts. Literator's painting was first originated from a notion of the "Theory of Elegance" in the era of "Six Kingdoms (Yuk-Jo)." During the period of the "Tang" Dynasty, the paintings appeared to contain the literary and ideological background of Confucianism. It continued to advance toward "Five Kingdoms (O-Tae)" through the "Sung" Dynasty, where it was developed by "Mun-Tong," "So-Tong-Pa," and "Hwang-San-Kok" as the "Sung" Confucianism and philosophy of "Wang-Yang-Ming" advanced, and finally formed the unique style of "Me-Bul." On the other hand, we must not ignore the "Zen Paintings" by the Zen priests. Zen painting is a particular style of literator's painting and it represents the Zen priests' noble personalities and characters. The style of Zen paintings contains the philosophy of Zen meditation originated from Buddhism; precisely, the priests' liberal thoughts; and Zen paintings ornamented the field of literator's paintings. As mentioned previously, we might appreciate those literator's paintings, which contain a combination of Zen philosophy and Taoist's naturalism, from the two different points of view; historical point of view and artistical point of view. Specifically, the different interpretation of "Elegance" with the change of times was compared through the appreciation of the theory of elegance, and additionally the influence of Zen doctrine, a branch of Buddism, was appreciated. As to the historical progress of changes, during the "Six Kingdoms" era, "Mun-Ki-Painting," which depicts letters and scenic beauty, appeared as a result of development of naturalism within the theory of elegance, and the importance of "Sa-Hyok's" theory of elegance. During the "Tang" Dynasty, literator's paintings appear as "Wang-Yu" depicts the influence of "O-To-Jars" paintings in Chinese ink. His style was succeeded by "Hyong-Ho" of "Five Kingdoms" and his apprentices; "Tong-Won" and "Ko-Yu," who developed it as a style of literator's painting. This style was advanced a step forward to "Me-Bul-Jon-Bob" by "Me-Bul" who made a painting career at "Kang-Nam" where the climate was mild. During "Won" era, an independent style of literator's painting abruptly appeared on the canvas from "Four Maestros" of "Won" Dynasty whose attitude was to restore the pride of "Han"tribe called for by "Cho-Maeng-Pu." During the "Myong" Dynasty, the prevailing literator's style of painting was shown by the "O's Group" at "Kang-am." "Sim-Sok-Chon," "Mun-Ching-Myung," and "Dong-Ki-Chang" were very prominent. During the "Cheung" Dynasty, literator's painting faced innovatory style by "Kum-Nung-Pal-Goe (Eight prodigious men from Kum-Nung)" who were the oustered patriachs of the "Myong" Dynasty, whose style became the pioneer of the current literator's paintings and thereafter instigated the appearence of "Yang-Ju-Pal-Goe (Eight prodigious men from Yang-Ju)," while the traditional literator's painting was combined by "Sa-Wang (Four Kings)," in the early part of the "Cheung" Dynasty. In Korea, it is presumed that the pioneers of the literator's paintings are those intellectuals who returned from "Tang" after their study abroad. However, practically speaking, it is accepted that literator's painting was first recognized during the late stage of "Koryo" Dynasty. Those intellectuals of "Koryo," while staying in "Won" for some political or research purposes, were influenced by the painters of literator's paintings of "Won"Dynasty. Particularly, the painting theory of "Cho-Maeng-Pu" and exchange of paintings by and between "King Chung-Sun" (the 26th King of "Koryo," who established "Mankyongtang" in the capital of "Yon") and "Yi-Chae-Hyon" (1287-1367) suggest the dawn of the Korean literator's painting era. The style of literator's painting appeared for the first time in the early painting works of "Yi" Dynasty. The literator's painting style of "Me-Bul" begun in the late stage of "Puk-Song" appeared in Korean painters' works. In addition, these aristocrats and men of nobility started producing "Muk-Chuk (Bamboo painted in ink)," "Muk-Mae (Plum tree in ink)," "Muk-Ran (Iris)" and "Muk-Po-Do (vines)," This style of literator's painting became widespread after the middle era of "Cho-Sun" Dynasty, and the harmony of the literator's painting styles, those having been already introduced and those newly developed, constituted the Korean literator's painting style. "Chung-Sun" is one of the examplary painters in this field. During the late stage of "Cho-Sun" Dynasty, the frequent visits by Korean scholars of positivism to "Peking" made it possible to introduce the new concept of the arts, thereby giving a great deal of influence to the Korean style of paintings. The style of "Yang-Ju-Pal-Goe (Eight prodigious men of Yang-Ju)" and the new concept of the paintings perceived by those progressive literary men made it possible to form the current style of the Korean literatorls paintings.
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