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學齡前 兒童의 內的原因 推定에 미치는 影響

Title
學齡前 兒童의 內的原因 推定에 미치는 影響
Other Titles
(The) Effects of justification and good-child judgment of the preschool children's inference of internal motive
Authors
金禎姬.
Issue Date
1982
Department/Major
교육대학원 교육학전공교육심리분야
Keywords
학령전아동내적원인착한아이판단
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
歸因理論(Attribution Theory)란 "왜"로 시작하는 質問에 대해 사람들이 "어떻게" 대답을 하는가 하는 理論이다. 사람들은 歸因過程에서 因果셰마(Cause S초듬)를 사용하게 되는데, 因果셰마란 여러 가지 原因들이 어떻게 相互作用하여 특정한 結果를 초래하는지에 대해 사람들이 가지고 있는 一般的인 槪念組織이다. 여러 가지 因果셰마 中 가장 基本的이고 普遍的인 것이 多充分 因果셰마(Multiple Sufficient Cause Schema)이며, 이 셰마를 사용하는 節減原理(Discounting principle)가 적용된다. 이 原理에 依하면, 어떤 行動을 유발시킨 분명한 原因, 예를들어 狀況의 壓力과 같은 外的原因이 있으면 그 行動을 일으키는 內的原因이 약한 것으로 지각된다. 節減效果가 일어나는 까닭은 外的原因이 內的原因보다 더 현저하고 즉각적으로 검증될 수 있기 때문이다. 여러 선행연구들에 의하면 學齡前 兒童들은 節減原理(Discovnting Principle)를 體系的으로 사용하고 있지못하다는 증거가 있다. 이에 대한 설명으로서 金正午와 金泰蓮은 學齡前 兒童들이 外的原因과 內的原因을 解釋하는 段階와 그리고 두 主人公을 比較하는 段階上에서 각기 問題가 있기 때문에 節減原理를 사용해서 나타나는 節減效果가 觀察되지 않았다고 主張하였다! 金正午와 金泰蓮은 그들이 提示한 歸因過程 段階模型에서 正當化變因은 解釋段階에, 착한아이 판단은 比較 段階에 각각 影響을 주는 要因으로 提示하였다. 이 變因의 效果에 대한 선행연구에서 상반되는 結果가 나왔기 때문에 本 實驗에서는 外的原因의 正當化와 착한아이 판단이 兒童의 節減原理 사용에 미치는 영향을 한 實驗內에서 조작하여 檢證하고자 하였다. 즉 正當化變因은 外的原因에 대한 正當化의 提示有無로, 暗示變因은 스스로 行動한 아이가 착한아이라는 暗示의 提示 有無로 조작하였다. 學齡前 兒童 64名을 4가지 實驗條件(低正當化/無暗示, 低正當化/有暗示, 高正當化/無暗示, 高正當化/有暗示)에 區劃無選配定하고 이들에게 6쌍의 이야기를 그림과 함께 提示하면서 들려주고, 스스로 行動한 주인공과 시켜서 行動한 주인공 중 누가 더 內的動機가 강한지를 판단하도록 하였다. 有暗示 條件에서는 착한아이에 대한 4가지 이야기와 그림이 먼저 提示되었고, 高正當化 條件에서는 外的原因으로 사용된 命令에 대한 分明한 理由를 說明해 주었다. 硏究 結果, 正當化變因만이 主效果를 나타냈다. 즉 行動의 外的原因에 대한 正當化를 줄 경우에는 그렇지 않은 경우에 비해 節減效果가 많이 나타났다. 學齡前 兒童들은 正當한 外的原因이 있을때는 內的原因을 節減시켜 外的原因이 行動(結果)를 초래한다고 판단했다. 暗示變因은 主效果를 보이지 않았다. 學齡前 兒童들이 착한아이 판단과 內的動機를 同化시켜서 認知한다는 理論과 相反된 結論이 나왔다. 本實驗의 結果로 보아 學齡前 兒童들이 基本的으로 歸因에서 節減原理를 使用하고 있으며 外的原因의 正當化가 節減原理사용의 촉진요인이 되는 것으로 간주된다.;Attribution theory is a theory concerning "how" people draw answer to questions beginning with "why". In the course of causal attribution people make Use of causal schemata. which are systematic conceptional mode of how various kinds of causes interact to produce effects. The most fundamental and common of these schemata is the Multiple Sufficient Cause (MSC) schema to which the discounting principle is applied. According to Kelley. when there is an external reason for undertaking a behavior, an observer may discount the possible contribution of any internal factors. So to speak. discounting occurs because the external cause is often more sailent and readily verifiable than the internal cause. consequently, appropriate internal causes are inferred weak in the presence of plausable external causes. In the previous studies on children's development of the use of the MSC schema in social perception, there have been discrepancies on whether the preschoolers can use discounting principle or not. To this inconsistancy, KIM Jung-oh and KIM Tae-lyon interpreted it with attributional stage model which was developed by themselves that limitation of employing of discounting principle corresponds to limitation of interpretation and comparison capability of preschoolers. And they suggested that justification of the external cause influences the interpretation stage, whereas, judgement on who is really a good-child, between spontaneous actor and commanded actor, affects the comparison stage. The current study was conducted to examine the effects of discounting according to the two variables, justification of external cause (in the form of command) and judgement of good-child behavior, in the preschooler's causal attribution. The allusion and justification variables were manipulated, namely, the allusion contains the contents of that the good-child is the one who acts spontaneously, and the justification reserves the convincible reason of external cause (command). 64 preschoolers participated in this experiment, who were assigned by a blocked randomization method of four experiment conditions: Low justification/no allusion. low justification/ allusion, high justification/no allusion, high justification/ allusion. Subjects listened to stories that contrasts target persons who engaged in an action of their own accord with those who were command to do the same kind of action. In the high justification condition, the convincible reason of command was presented; in the allusion condition presented 4 stories illustrating a child getting praised because he was performing a good behavior for himself. The subjects were then asked to indicate which story character really wanted to do the action. The result of this experiment showed a significant main effect of the justification variable. Subjects in the justification condition revealed more discounting effects than those in the low justification condition. If there was high external justification for the action, the internal causes were discounted as possibly causing the action, and the subjects infer that the action generated by external cause. On the other hand, the allusion variable didn't show any significant effect. The result didn't support the previous studies that viewed kindergarten children were employing additive schema in which mother's command was seen as increasing the actor's desire to do the action. In this current study the preschoolers were assumed to perceive the good-child judgement and the internal motive degree independently. Consequently, the current experiment obtained following results: preschoolers can fundamentally employ MSC schema when inferring the cause of a behavior, and further to that, the external justification serves to facilitate the use of the discounting principle.
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