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夫婦間 커뮤니케이션에 관한 一硏究
- 夫婦間 커뮤니케이션에 관한 一硏究
- Other Titles
- (A) study on the marital communication processes with emphasis on agreement and apprehension
- Issue Date
- 대학원 가정관리학과
- 부부; 커뮤티케이션; 가정
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- The purpose of this paper is to investigate the degrees of Agreement and Apprehension of communication between husbands and wives and to find out the correlation between Agreement and Apprehension for understanding the marital communication.
For this purpose, two instruments were administrated to 495 subjects (247 males, 248 females) who were mothers and fathers of the students attending two elementary schools, two middle schools and a high school located in Seoul. The first instrument was a modified version of the Marital Adjustment Test by Kimmel and Van Der Veen, which was originally developed by Locke. The second instrument was developed basing upon the PRSCA (Personal Report of Spouse Communication Apprehension) by Powers and Hutchinson. For the statistical analysis of the collected data, t-test, F-test, and Pearson r were performed.
The results of this study are summarized as follows:
A. On the Marital Communication Agreement:
1. Regardless of ages of the couples, types of family, levels of education, durations of marriage, there were no significant difference between husbands and wives in all dimensions of the Marital Communication Agreement Scale. However it was found that the higher the level of education of both husbands and wives, the higher Agreement scores were obtained. In the case of husbands, the longer the duration of marriage was, the higher the Agreement Scores were shown. Concerning the amount of average living cost per month, there was a significant difference on the the Agreement scores only in the case of wives. That is the more average expenses of living in a month was, the higher the Agreement scores were.
2. According to the marital communication styles and hours they spend in daily communication, there was a significant difference only in the case of wives. The highest Agreement score was obtained in the group which communicated well with their spouses and spent 3 to 5 houres a day for communicating.
3. Depending upon the degrees of marital satisfaction, there was a significant difference found on the Agreement scores in both husbands and wives groups. It was found that the higher they felt satisfied with their marriage, the more their Agreement was shown. Husbands showed higher scores than wives.
B. On the Marital Communication Apprehension:
1. Regardless of ages, types of family, levels of education, and durations of marriage, there was no significant difference between the Apprehension scores in both husbands' and wives' groups. However, it was found that the higher levels of education of both husbands and wives were, the higher tendency toward Apprehension was shown. In case of wives, the more the average expenses of living per month was, the higher the Apprehension.
2. When the types of communication were compared, there was a significant difference found among Apprehension scores in both groups of husbands and wives. Considering the scores on each sub-dimensions of the Apprehension Scale, husbands showed significantly different scores on the situation dimension and personality dimension, while wives showed significantly different scores on the attitude dimension and personality dimension among the compared groups.
Concerning the hours they spend in communication with their spouses, only the husbands groups showed a significant difference on the Apprehension scores among the compared groups. But the longer the hours of communication was, both wives and husbands tended to obtain the higher Apprehension scores. In the case of husbands, only the attitude dimension scores of the Apprehension Scale was difference significantly.
3. According to the extent of marital satisfaction, husbands groups alone showed a significantly different scores on the Apprehension Scale. It was found, however that the more satisfied they were, both husbands and wives showed a tendency toward obtaining the higher scores on Apprehension Scale. It was also found that both husbands and wives showed significant differences among the scores on the personality and the attitude dimensions of the Apprehension Scale.
C. The correlation between the Agreement and the Apprehension of Marital Communication was examined as follows:
1. A significantly positive correlation between Agreement and Apprehension was shown in both husbands and wives groups. When compared between the scores on Marital Communication Agreement and each of the 15 sub-dimensions of Marital Communication Apprehension, the attitude and personality dimensions of Apprehension score were positively correlated with Agreement Scale in both husbands and wives groups. Wives showed a significantly positive correlation between Apprehension and each of the fifteen sub-dimensions of Agreement. However in the case of husbands, there was a significantly positive correlation between Apprehension and each of the twelve sub-dimensions of Agreement excluding food and table manner, spouse's family and friendship and religious matter.
2. The independent variables were compared to see any correlation between Agreement and Apprehension.
1) Concerning the levels of education, a significantly positive correlation between Agreement and Apprehension was obtained in the group of high school graduate husbands. And wives who had middle school education or below and high school graduates showed a significantly positive correlation. The higher level of education was, however, the lower correlation tended to be in general. Concerning the average monthly living expenses, husbands show a significantly positive correlation between Agreement and Apprehension only in the group which average cost was below \290,000. In the case of wives a significantly positive correlation was obtained when the average cost was below \90,000.
When the amount of communication hours was applied, the husbands group showed a significantly positive correlation between Agreement and Apprehension in the 3 to 5 hours group. But in the case of wives, it was found that there were, significantly positive correlations between Agreement and Apprehension in all groups.
According to the extent of marital satisfaction, husbands showed a significantly positive correlation between Agreement and Apprehension only when the marital life was felt satisfied. On the other hand wives showed a significantly positive correlation between Agreement and Apprehension when they perceived the marital life was comparatively good.
When asked how many times they have thought about divorce or separation from spouse, husbands who reported "hardly thought about it" showed a significantly positive correlation between Agreement and Apprehension of marital communication. On the contrary wives showed significantly positive correlations in all groups.;본 연구는 夫婦間 커뮤니케이션을 理解하고 이에 대한 새로운 洞察을 얻고자, 부부간 커뮤니케이션의 一致度와 理解度를 조사하고 一致度와 理解度의 相關關係를 알아보았다.
이를 위해 서울시내 국민학교·중학교·고등학교 학생들의 학부모 495명(남편 247명·부인 248명)을 대상으로 質問紙調査를 실시하였다. 一致度의 측정은 Locke의 결혼적응도 측정검사를 기초로 한 Kimmel과 Van Der Veen의 결혼생활적응도 측정의 척도 중 일부와 본 연구자가 작성한 문항을 사용하였고, 理解度는 Powers와 Hutchinson의 PRSCA(Personal Report of Spouse Communication Apprehension)를 기초로 하여 작성된 문항을 사용하였다.
조사결과 수집된 자료에 대한 통계적 분석으로는 t-test와 F-test, Pearson의 r을 구하였다.
연구의 結果는 다음과 같다.
1. 부부간 커뮤니케이션 一致度
(1) 年齡·家族形態·結婚生活年數에 따른 커뮤니케이션 一致度는 유의적인 차이는 없었으나, 남편·부인 모두 교육수준이 높을수록 一致度가 높았고, 또 남편의 경우 結婚年數가 길수록 一致度가 높게 나타났다.
月平均生活費에 따른 커뮤니케이션의 一致度는 부인에게만 유의적인 차이가 나타나, 월평균 생활비가 많을수록 一致度가 높은 경향을 보였다.
(2) 對話時間이나 그 形態에 따른 커뮤니케이션 一致度에서는 부인에게만 유의적인 차이가 나타났다. 부부가 서로 잘 이야기할 경우, 그리고 對話時間이 3∼5時間 程度일 때 一致度가 가장 높았다.
(3) 結婚生活의 滿足에 따른 커뮤니케이션의 一致度는 남편·부인 모두 滿足程度가 클수록 一致度가 의의있게 높았다.
2. 부부간 커뮤니케이션의 理解度
(1) 年齡·家族形態·敎育水準·結婚生活年數 및 月平均生活費에 따른 커뮤니케이션의 理解度는 남편·부인 모두 유의적인 차이가 없었다. 그러나 두 집단 모두 敎育水準이 높을수록 理解度가 높아지는 경향이 있으며, 부인의 경우에는 월평균 생활비가 많을수록 理解度가 높은 경향을 보였다.
(2) 對話形態에 따른 理解度는 남편·부인 모두 유의적인 차이가 있었다. 理解度의 3個 하위변인 별로는 남편은 狀況변인과 性格변인에서 부인은 態度변인과 性格변인에서 유의적인 차이를 나타냈다.
대화시간에 따른 理解度에서는 남편만 유의적인 差異가 있었는데, 특히 態度변인에서 큰 차이를 보였다.
(3) 結婚生活의 滿足에 따른 커뮤니케이션의 理解度는 남편의 경우에만 유의적인 차이가 있었고, 남편·부인 모두 滿足이 클수록 理解度가 높아지는 경향이 있었다. 하위변인별 理解度에서는 모두 성격변인과 태도변인에서 유의적인 差異가 나타났다.
3. 부부간 커뮤니케이션 一致度와 理解度間의 相關關係
(1) 커뮤니케이션 一致度와 理解度間의 상관은 남편·부인 모두 의의있는 정적 상관을 보였다. 一致度와 하위변인별 理解度와의 상관은 남편·부인 모두 態度변인 혹은 性格변인과 一致度間에 의의있는 정적상관이 있었다. 理解度와 一致度의 15個 下位變因과의 상관에서 부인은 모두 의의있는 정적상관을 보였으나, 남편의 경우는 음식 및 식사예법, 배우자가족 및 친구관계, 종교문제를 제외한 12개 下位變因과만 의의있는 정적상관이 있었다.
(2) 獨立變因에 따른 커뮤니케이션 一致度와 理解度間의 相關關係
1) 敎育水準에 따른 一致度와 理解度間의 상관은 남편에게는 고졸집단에서만 의의있는 정적상관이 있었다. 부인은 中卒以下와 高卒의 경우에 의의있는 정적상관이 나타났고 敎育水準이 높을수록 상관이 낮아지는 경향을 보였다.
또한 月平均生活費에 따른 커뮤니케이션 一致度와 理解度間의 상관은 남자의 경우 29만원이하인 때만 의의있는 정적상관이 있었다. 부인은 69만원 以下인 때 의의있는 정적상관이 나타났다.
2) 對話時間에 따른 커뮤니케이션 一致度와 理解度間의 상관은 남편의 경우 3∼5時間 程度일 때만 의의있는 정적상관을 보였으나, 부인은 對話時間의 程度에 關係없이 전반적으로 의의있는 정적상관을 보였다.
3) 結婚生活에 대한 滿足程度에 따른 커뮤니케이션 一致度와 理解度間의 상관은 남편의 경우 결혼생활이 滿足스러운 때만, 부인은 결혼생활이 그런대로 괜찮을 때만 의의있는 정적상관이 있었다.
배우자와의 離婚이나 別居를 생각해본 경우가 얼마나 있는가에 따른 一致度와 理解度間의 相關關係에 있어서, 남편은 거의 생각하지 않았을때, 부인은 가끔 생각해 볼 때, 거의 생각해 본 적이 없을 때, 전혀 생각해 본 적이 없을때의 경우 의의있는 정적상관을 나타냈다.
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