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獻仙桃에 대한 考察

Title
獻仙桃에 대한 考察
Other Titles
(A) Study on the "Heon-Sun-Do"
Authors
孫貞姬.
Issue Date
1981
Department/Major
대학원 무용학과
Keywords
헌선도형식비교문헌비교
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to establish a clear concept on "Dang-Ak-Jung-Jae" (Chinese music-styled court singing and dancing) by comparatively analyzing contents, forms and various elements of "HEON SUN DO" which belongs to "Dang-Ak-Jung-Jae" (Chinese music-styled court singing and dancing) among traditional court dances, and also to examine the possibility of the revival of old court singing and dancing which has been handed down only through document, by resorting "Heon Sun Do" to it's original form through reviewing of it's general forms and characteristics. In the changing process and structure of "Goong-Joong-Jung-Jae" (court singing and dancing), it is considered that each work of court singing and dancing has a racial character rising above an unique expression of feeling, and oriental thought of philosophy of "Eum Yang Five Elements" dwells in the ceremonial procedures and framework itself, and that form of dance is characterized by it's courtesy, slow tempo and it's meaningful, free use. The "Goong-Joong-Jung-Jae" is classified into two parts of "Hyang-Ak-Jung-Jae" (Korean traditional music style) and "Dang-Ak-Jung-Jae" (Chinese music-styled singing and dancing). The contents of "Reon-Sun-Do", a typical dance of "Dang-Ak-Jung-Jae" (Chinese music-styled court singing and dancing, are that Wang-Mo comes down from the fairy land to present the fairy land's peaches to the King to pray for long living of the King. In the form of dancing motion, the first KuHo of the ceremony is announced by 2 Bongjuk-Kanja(ceremony processors who are playing a role of guide for dancing), then stands facing inward each other. Then, I Kisaeng (youth or juniors are preferrable) gives fairy land's peach tray to Wang-Mo, and Wang-Mo faces westward, singing words of song in Chinese characters. Thus, all procedures for ceremony to announce the beginning of dance are just finished. Now, they start dancing in full scale. First, all of dancers return to their original form, performing various dances, such as "Sasu-Mu", "SuboRock-MU", "Hyupsu-Mu", etc, and singing words of other songs between some intervals of dancing. After that, facing forward, Bongjuk-Kanja announce "after-KuHo" by saluting that the dancing was finished, and all of dancers move backward. In the comparative analysis of music journal "Koryo-Sa-Ak-Chi", "Ak-Hak-Kwe-Bom" and "Goong-Joong-Jung-Jae-Mu-Do-Hol-Gi" (at the end of Yi Dynasty), some music used for the subject dancing is found to be of the same name of melody(or tune) and some others are found to be of different name of tune. However, the details on the forms and contents of music are unknown, because it was not shown in old documents. Therefore, the forms and contents of music used depend upon common name and pen name which were established by the National Classical Music Institute. Moreover, "KuHo-Chio" and "Chio" of "Koryo-Sa-Ak-Chi" were divided into "before-KuHo" and "after-KuHo" since "Music Standard", and the "Jukkan-Ja" announced it in such way, and sang it in the abridged form of contents. "Won-Mu"(dancing team consists of 3 dancers), 1 "Wang-Mo" (Sun-Mo shonw in "Goong-Joong-Jung-Jae-Mu-Do-Hol-Gi"), 2 "Hyup-Mu", and "Bongwi-Eui" consists of 18 members. Moreover, we can easily understand that costumes and ceremonial things for them are found to be the same one as in other "Jung-Jae" in most cases. However, many changes for dancing motion and forms had been made due to the contemporary performance situation, especially in it's contents. Moreover, we are unable to compare such changes in detail because there are not records in documents for it. As commented above, it is well concluded that, some changes has been made0 for "Heon Sun Do" during the period from "Koryo-Dynasty" to "Chosun-Dynasty", including changing of names, singing it in the abridged form of song words and changing of music, especially in contents and forms. However, it is considered that "Heon-Sun-Do" is a typical "Dang-Ak-Jung-Jae" which preserves it's original form without being much changed both in it's contents and forms.;本 論文은 傳統宮中舞踊중에서 唐樂呈才인 獻仙桃에 관하여 그 內容과 形式 및 제반 요소들을 옛 文獻을 中心으로 比較分析함으로서, 唐樂呈才에 對한 槪念을 명백히 하고, 그 一般的 形態 및 特徵을 규명하여 獻仙桃의 原形을 복원시켜 文獻에만 傳하여 오는 옛 呈才의 再現 가능성을 모색하는데 그 意義를 두었다. 宮中呈才의 構造오 변천과정을 살펴보면, 呈才는 개개의 作品이 독자적인 감정표현을 초월하여 民族的인 性格을 지니며, 儀式節次 및 構成 자체에 陰陽五行이 東洋哲學思想이 깃들여 있음을 알 수 있고, 舞態는 정중하고 느리며, 깊이 있게 구사하는 特徵을 가지고 있는데, 그 當時의 宮中呈才는 唐樂呈才와 鄕樂呈才로 區分되고 있다. 獻仙桃는 唐樂呈才의 대표적인 춤으로, 君王을 頌壽하기 위하여 王母가 仙界에서 내려와 仙桃를 헌상하는 內容으로 되어 있으며, 그 無作形態는 춤의 향도적 구실을 하는 일종의 儀仗인 奉竹竿子 2人에 의해 先口號를 알리고는 서로 內向하여 定立하면, 妓 1人(年少子를 택한다)이 仙桃盤을 王母에게 전하고, 王母는 西向하여 漢文으로된 唱詞를 부름으로서, 춤의 시작을 알리는 禮의 節次가 끝나고 본격적인 춤으로 들어가는데, 먼저 全員이 처음으로 形態로 復位하여 四手舞, □場舞, 受寶□舞, 挾手舞, 垂楊手舞 등을 추면서 그 사이 사이에 또 드른 唱詞들을 부르고, 이어서 奉竹竿子가 前面을 向하여 춤을 끝냈다는 禮義로서 後口號를 하면, 舞員이 물러나는 것으로 이 춤을 맺고 있다. 변천 내용에 있어 高麗史 樂志와 樂學軌範 및 宮中呈才舞圖笏記(韓末)를 比較하여 보면, 音樂은 그 曲名이 같은 것과 다른 것이 있는데, 그 音樂의 內容 및 形式에 관해서는 옛 文獻上에 明示되어 있지 않아, 그 확실한 것은 알 수 없으므로 現行 國立 國樂院의 俗名과 雅名에 의존하고 있다. 또한, 高麗史 樂志의 「口號·致語」, 「致語」가 樂學軌範 以後에는 先「口號」와 後「口號」로 나누어 竹竿子가 아뢰었고, 詞의 內容도 생략하여 부르고 있다. 舞員은 3人으로, 王母1人 (宮中呈才舞圖笏記에는 仙母로 되어 있다), 挾舞 2人으로 構成되고, 奉威儀는 18人으로 儀物 및 服飾은 他 呈才와 同一한 것이 많음을 알 수 있다. 그러나 無作 및 形態에 있어서는 當時의 演戱 상황에 따라 그 內容과 形式에 많은 변화가 있었겠으나, 확실한 것은 dpt 文獻에 구체적인 記錄이 없어 比較할 수 없다. 이상에서와 같이, 獻仙桃는 高麗朝에 전래되어 朝鮮朝를 거치는 동안 內容 및 形式面에 있어서, 명칭이 변하거나, 音樂의 변화, 唱詞의 사설내용을 생략하여 부르는 변화 등이 있었으나, 그 內容과 形態에 있어 커다란 변형 없이, 거의 그 原形을 保存하면서 傳해 내려오는 唐樂呈才의 대표적인 춤의 하나이다.
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