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주돈이(周敦이)에서의 우주(宇宙)와 인간(人間) 연구

주돈이(周敦이)에서의 우주(宇宙)와 인간(人間) 연구
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대학원 철학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
Chou, Tun - I(周敦이, 1017 ∼ 1073) occupies a position in the Chinese tradition based on a role assigned to him by Zhu Xi (1130-1200), the architect of the ri - hsueh(理學) in North Sung Dynasty(北宋). During his lifetime, Chou was not an influential figure in North Sung political or intellectual life. He had few, if any, formal students other than his nephews, the Cheng brothers(二程), who studied with him only briefly when they were teenagers. He was most remembered by his contemporaries for the evident quality of his personality and mind. He was known as a warm, humane man who felt a deep kinship with the natural world, a man with penetrating insight into the Way of Heaven, the natural-moral order. To later Confucians he personified the virtue of "authenticity" (cheng), the full realization of the innate goodness and wisdom of human nature. He was the most symbolistic Confucianist. Confucianism was one of the most important thoughts in Chinese philosophical history. The contents of Confucianism consisted of human being and realities of life. After Han Dynasty(漢代), the importance of Confucianism was weakend because of Taoism(道敎) and Buddhism(佛敎). But Confucianism had on opportunity for developement under the civil administration of the North Sung Dynasty. The Confucianism of the North Sung Dynasty had the metaphysical and rational doctrine. Such stream was affected from Taoism. So Chou, Tun - I recieved the effect of that, too. His reminded works was T'ai - chi - t'u -shue(太極圖說) and T'ung - shu.(通書) The contents of his philosophy is the cosmology in his own way and the principle of mind and the theory of virtue and vice. Especially Tai - chi(太極) is the most important concept in his philosophy. He borrow it from Taoism and Buddhism. According to him, The wu-chi(無極) is also the Tai - chi(太極). When the Tai - chi(太極) is brought into action, yang(陽) is derived. When the activity reaches its climax, it becomes inactive. And yin(陰) is thus derived. When the inactivity reaches its climax, the activity returns. The activity and inactivity alternate and constiute the root of each other. By the distinction between yin(陰) and yang(陽), the Two Modes (Heaven and Earth) are thus established. And by the change of yang(陽) and the coordination of yin(陰), Water(水), Fire(火), Wood(木), Metal(金) and Earth(土)are generated. With the proper arrangement of the emanative material force Elements, the four seasons come to run. The Five Elements(陰陽五行) integrate into yin(陰) and yang(陽). The yin and yang integrate into the Tai - chi(太極). And the Tai - chi(太極) is originally the wu-chi(無極). When the Five Elements are generated, each of them gains its specific nature. The reality of the wu-chi(無極) and the essence of the Two and the Five mysteriously combine(妙合) and coagulate. "Due to the Tao of Ch'ien(乾道), the male come into being; due to that of K'un(坤道), the female come into being." The interaction between the two emanative material forces (yin and yang) transforms and produces myriad things, and the myriad things produce and reproduce, resulting in endless changes and transformations. It is man alone who receives the highest excellence in this transformation, and therefrom he is the most intelligent among creatures. In response to the action of the Five Elements(陰陽五行) in their natures, the good(善) and the evil(惡) are distinguished, and the ten thousand affairs of human society take place. The sages(聖人) settle these affairs by the doctrines of the Mean(中), correctness(正), humanity(仁), and righteousness(義). Chou named these affairs totally as Jen - chi(人極). The sage(聖人) who develope the Jen - chi(人極) completely is accomplished through Chu - jing(主靜). Chu - jing(主靜) is the method of returning to Chi(誠) and true nature. Chi(誠) is the substancial power which grows all things. The thought of Chou, Tun - I had a great influence on ri - hsueh(理學) in North Sung Dynasty(北宋). It seems that the thought of him will give a great meaning to contemporary standpoint about studies. ;본 논문은 송대(宋代) 이학(理學)의 개산조사(開山祖師)로 알려진 주돈이(周敦이,1017∼1073)1)의 철학사상 전반에 대한 연구를 통하여 그가 이루고자 하였던 학문의 목적은 무엇이며, 또 그것을 어떻게 현실 사회 속에서 구체적으로 실현하고자 하였는지를 알아보고자 하는 것이다. 주돈이의 철학사상은 도교(道敎)와 불교(沸敎)의 영향을 배경으로 하고, 선진유가(先業儒家)의 윤리적 덕목들을 수용하는 가운데 『주역(周易)과 『중용(中傭)』에 나오는 주요개념에 대한 재해석을 통해 우주(宇宙)와 인간(人間)을 해명한 것이다. 그가 지은 『태극도설(太極圖設)이나 『통서(通書)』 역시 『주역』과 『중용』의 주요개념들을 자신의 입장에서 활용한 저작이며, 그가 이렇게 고전을 재해석한 목적은 우주에 대한 형이상학적인 해석과 우주에서의 인간의 위치 및 인간의 삶의 방향을 수립하는데 있었다. 주돈이의 철학사상의 근간은 『태극도설』중에 표현되어있지만, 『태극도설』은 주돈이 사상의 골격을 간략하게 표현한 것이라 할 수 있고, 반면 『통서』는 보다 세부적인 주요 개념들을 다루고 있다. 주돈이는 『태극도설(太極圖設)』을 통해 우주(宇宙)와 인간(人間)에 대한 형이상학적 체계를 완성한다 그리고 「태극도설」에서는 인간의 자기 변형 즉, 내적수양을 통해 우주(宇宙)의 본원을 직접적으로 체험하는 것 에 기반 하여 인간성을 완성하는 것을 지향하고 있는데 이것이 바로 인 간의 극치[人極]을 세운다는 것이다. 또한 주돈이는 그의 또 하나의 저서 인 『통서(通書)』 를 통해 윤리(倫理) 및 정치의식(政治意識)과 연관하여 우주와 인생을 논한다. 그리하여 주돈이는 우주와 인간과 사회에 대한 포 괄적 해석을 할 수 있게 되었다. 그에 의하면 인간의 삶의 완성은 우주의 본원에 대한 인식과 유기적(有機的)으로 연관되어 있다. 그러므로 그의 윤리 · 정치적 관심은 우주에 대한 해명을 바탕으로 해서 전개된다. 본 논문에서는 주돈이 철학의 이러한 유기적인 체계를 해명하고, 그 주요 개념들의 의미를 해석하는 동시에 그 적극적인 의의를 밝히고자 한다.
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