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장갑의 치수규격설정을 위한 손부위 특성연구

Title
장갑의 치수규격설정을 위한 손부위 특성연구
Authors
김은경
Issue Date
2003
Department/Major
대학원 의류직물학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Doctor
Abstract
본 연구는 손부위의 측정치를 분석하고, 성별간, 연령간의 차이 및 항목간의 상관관계 분석을 통하여 장갑 치수규격의 설정과 그레이딩을 위한 기초자료를 제시하고, 전체성인 및 남녀의 손 형태를 유형화하여 그 특성을 밝힘으로써 올바른 손 형상 분석을 토대로 장갑 디자인 설계, 개발에 도움이 되고자 하였다. 또한 장갑제조업체의 생산현황과 치수체계를 파악하고, 본 연구의 실제 측정치와 한국산업규격의 장갑치수규격, ISO 치수규격 등을 비교?분석하여 장갑설계를 위한 손의 기본치수간격과 참고치수를 제시하고자 하였다. 이와 같은 연구내용에 따른 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 측정치를 이용한 손부위 형태 분석 장갑제작의 중요 항목인 손길이의 평균값은 182.5mm이며, 손둘레의 평균값은 193.2mm로 나타났다. 본 연구에서는 측정치의 활용도를 높이고자 각 손가락길이, 손가락둘레, 엄지높이와 각 손가락 사이의 Crotch 높이를 측정하였고, 팔부위 길이와 둘레의 경우 특수장갑이나 팔 보호대 제작을 고려하여 본 연구의 측정항목에 포함시켰다. 남녀 집단별 차이분석 결과 남자의 측정치가 모든 항목에서 유의적으로 여자 보다 크게 나타났다. 전체성인 및 각 성인 남녀의 연령집단간 분산분석을 실시하여 연령집단별 유의차 검증을 실시한 결과 남녀 모두 너비, 둘레, 두께와 관련된 치수의 경우 연령이 증가할수록 커지는 경향을 보였으며, 길이와 관련된 일부 부위의 경우 연령이 낮을수록 치수가 커지는 것을 볼 수 있었다. 전체성인 남녀의 손부위 특징을 알고 측정항목간의 관계를 파악하기 위하여 총 57항목간의 상관관계를 분석한 결과 공통적으로 손의 수직크기를 나타내는 항목은 주로 손길이, 손바닥길이 및 신장과 높은 상관을 보이며, 손의 수평크기와 연관이 있는 항목들은 공통적으로 최대손둘레 II , 손둘레 및 체중 등과 상관성이 높은 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 2. 손의 유형분류 각 측정치에 따른 전체 성인의 요인분석결과 3개의 요인이 추출되었고, 요인점수에 의해 2개의 유형으로 손을 분류하였다. 유형 1은 손의 둘레, 너비, 두께가 크고 두꺼우며 손바닥의 높이가 짧고, 손의 종적크기인 손길이, 손가락길이 또한 짧게 나타나 손의 길이가 전반적으로 짧으면서 통통한 형태에 속한다. 유형 2는 손의 횡적크기와 두께가 보통이거나 유형 1보다 작으며 손바닥 높이와 손길이, 손가락길이는 길게 나타나 손의 종적크기와 횡적크기가 유형 1에 비하여 비례적인 형태에 속한다. 성인남자 측정치의 요인분석결과 4개의 요인이 추출되었고, 요인점수에 의해 3개의 유형으로 분류하였으며 유형 1은 중간정도의 너비와 두께에 전체 손길이 및 손가락은 가장 긴 형태이고, 유형 2는 가장 작고, 짧고, 얇은 외소한 형태에 해당된다. 유형 3은 손바닥의 가랑이 높이는 가장 작아 손바닥면은 짧지만 손의 둘레, 너비가 가장 굵고, 두께도 가장 두꺼우며 손가락의 길이와 손길이가 긴 편이다. 성인여자 측정치의 요인분석결과 4개의 요인이 추출되었고, 요인점수에 의해 3개의 유형으로 분류하였으며, 유형 1은 중간 정도의 크기에 손바닥이 작고 얇은 형태에 속한다. 유형 2는 중간 크기의 손바닥에 손의 둘레, 너비, 길이 및 두께는 가장 크고 두꺼운 형태이다. 유형 3은 둘레, 너비 등의 횡적크기가 가장 작고, 손가락의 길이와 전체 손길이 등의 종적크기도 가장 작지만 손바닥 형태가 길고 두께가 두꺼운 손바닥 면이 통통한 형태에 속한다. 3. 기본 치수간격 설정 업체조사, 한국산업규격의 장갑치수체계 분석결과, ISO 치수체계와 본 연구의 측정치 비교 결과를 토대로 새로운 손의 기본치수간격을 설정하였다. 기본치수부위로 손둘레와 손길이를 선정하였고, 치수간격은 손길이 8mm 간격, 손둘레 13mm 간격을 채택하였다. 앞서 결정된 기본부위를 가지고 정해진 간격에 따라 구간을 나눈 후 각 구간의 빈도를 구하였고, 각 집단별로 커버율이 80%이상이 되도록 빈도가 3.0%이상인 구간을 선정하여 치수조합의 범위를 결정하였다. 이상의 조합에 의해 만들어진 전체성인 집단의 치수체계 커버율은 86.4%이며 총 13개 호수이다. 성인남자의 치수체계 커버율은 86.0%이며 총 10개 호수이고, 성인여자의 치수체계 커버율은 87.6%이며 총 8개 호수이다. 피트성을 필요로 하며 맞음새가 작업이나 경기력 향상에 결정적 역할을 하는 장갑의 치수간격설정을 위하여 손둘레와 손길이의 이원빈도분포표에서 유형별 출현율을 분석하였고, 커버율이 80%이상이 되도록 3.0%이상인 구간을 선정하여 치수조합을 설정하였다. 유형1의 치수체계 커버율은 87.5%로 나타났으며 치수구간은 9개구간으로 나타났다. 유형 2의 커버율은 84.3%이었고, 치수구간은 9개구간으로 나타났다. 피트성을 필요로 하지 않는 경우의 손의 기본치수간격은 손둘레와 손길이를 범위 값으로 조합하여 전체성인은 S, M, L, XL를 제시하였고, 전체 커버율이 78.8%로 나타났다. 성인남자는 S, M, L를 제시하였고, 커버율은 82.3%를 나타내었다. 성인 여자 또한 S, M, L 사이즈를 제시하여 새롭게 제시된 각 치수의 범위가 전체 성인여자의 81.3%를 커버하였다. ;The aim of this study was to provide the basic 2-dimensional statistics requisite in the sizing system and design of gloves. The 64 static measurements were selected to provide information about hands. Participants in the study were 824 adults, aged between 18 and 64. Subjects were divided into four age groups: 18 to 29, 30 to 39, 40 to 49, and 50 to 64, and separated according to sex. Statistical tests such as Descriptive Analysis, and Anova were conducted to analyze the data and ascertain the differences among the ages. The disparities between sex groups were compared by T-test. In addition, correlation among the 57 measurements was analyzed and the results were compared to the data from Japanese and other studies. Also, to summarize the information from the measurement values, a Factor Analysis and a Cluster Analysis among multivariate analyses were performed. Finally, analysis of a survey of glove manufacturers, analysis of KS glove standards, and analysis of ISO size designation and size system of hands were investigated to develop a new size interval system for hands suitable for both fitted and unfitted glove styles. The results of the study are as follows: 1. The results indicated that all the measurements were significantly larger in the male groups. The average of hand length was 182.5mm, and hand circumference was 193.2mm. There were significant differences among age groups for most hand circumferences, breadths and thickness items. As the age increased, the hand circumferences, breadths and thickness items became wider and thicker. In addition, there were significant differences among age groups for some of the hand length items. As the age increased, the mean measurement value of the length items decreased, so that it became shorter. However, some length items exhibited no change among age groups. The reason is because length measurements are mainly skeleton measurements, while the circumference measurements are affected by the muscular volume. Finger knuckle length and knuckle girth elongation rate was also calculated. And the result showed that the middle knuckle length elongation rate was 25.5% exhibited the greatest expansion. The knuckle girth elongation rate was about 14.08%. There was no significant difference between the male and female elongation rate. According to the results of the correlation analysis, hand length was highly correlated with finger length, palm length, and height. Maximum hand circumference II and hand circumference were highly correlated with most of the circumference items, breadth items and weight. 2. Twenty-two items were used for the factor and cluster analysis in order to classify the adult hand shape. The same method was used for both male and female groups. For the adult group, the variable quantities that are explained by a total of 3 factors amounted to under 79.37% of the variable quantities. The definition results of the factors related to the hands are as follows: Factor 1 is the horizontal dimension, the thickness of hand factor; Factor 2 is the height of the crotch; and Factor 3 is the vertical dimension of the hand. The adults' group hand was divided into 2 clusters according to a cluster analysis using factor scores. The characteristics according to hand type were as follows: Cluster 1 referred to high horizontal dimensions and thickness, rather small vertical dimensions and crotch height; and Cluster 2 represented the rather smaller horizontal dimensions and thickness but longer hand length than Type 1. For the male group, the variable quantities that are explained by a total of 4 factors amounted to under 71.18% of the variable quantities. The definition results of the factors related to the hands are as follows: Factor 1 is the horizontal dimension of the hand; Factor 2 is the height of the crotch; Factor 3 is the thickness of the palm; and Factor 4 is the vertical dimension of the hand. According to the cluster analysis, the hand shape was divided into 3 clusters, and the characteristics according to hand type were as follows: Cluster 1 referred to medium horizontal dimensions and thickness, the longest skeleton structure and crotch height among the 3 hand types; Cluster 2 represented the smallest vertical and horizontal dimensions and thickness; and Cluster 3 referred to the smallest crotch height but biggest horizontal dimensions and thickness and a rather long hand length. For the female group, the variable quantities that are explained by a total of 4 factors amounted to under 72.03% of the variable quantities. The definition results of the factors related to the hands are as follows: Factor 1 is the horizontal dimension of hand; Factor 2 is the height of the crotch; Factor 3 is the vertical dimension of the hand; and Factor 4 is the thickness of the palm. According to the cluster analysis, the hand shape was divided into 3 clusters, and the characteristics according to hand type were as follows. Cluster 1 referred to medium horizontal and vertical dimensions, and the smallest thickness among the 3 hand types, and a rather small crotch height; Cluster 2 represented the medium vertical dimensions and thickness, and the largest horizontal dimension among the 3 hand types; and Cluster 3 referred to the smallest horizontal and vertical dimensions, but the biggest thickness and crotch height, so that the hand shape is relatively small in terms of total size with a long and thick palm. 3. In this study, to establish a sizing system for gloves, a survey was administered to gather information about glove manufacturers' sizing problems and general marketing conditions. In addition, KS glove standards' size dimensions, size designation and labeling systems were analyzed. Also, KS glove standards' control sizes were compared to the anthropometric data of this study. As well, the ISO hand size system was also compared to the anthropometric data of this study according to frequency tables of hand length and hand circumference. Based on all the analyses' results, a new glove size interval system was composed. The primary aim of this system was to more accurately indicate the hand size of the person a glove is intended to fit. The size comprised the control dimensions of hand length and hand circumference. The size interval was 8mm in hand length and 13mm in hand circumference. The size range was established by making the coverage above 80%. The coverage of the new size interval system for an adult's hand was 86.4% and 13 sizes were suggested. The coverage of the male size system was 86.0% and 10 sizes were suggested. The coverage of the female size system was 87.6% and 8 sizes were suggested. For the fitted gloves, the size system should consider the cluster types of hand. The coverage of the Cluster 1 size system was 87.5% and 9 sizes were suggested and the coverage of the Cluster 2 size system was 84.3% and 9 sizes were suggested. For the unfitted gloves, size ranges based on hand length and hand circumference were developed. For the adults group, S, M, L, and XL were suggested and the coverage of the new size range was 78.8%. For the male group, S, M, and L were suggested and the coverage was 82.3%. For the female group, S, M, and L were also suggested and the coverage was 81.3%.
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