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兒童에 있어서 言語的 物質的 强化의 效果에 關한 實驗的 硏究

兒童에 있어서 言語的 物質的 强化의 效果에 關한 實驗的 硏究
Other Titles
(An) Experimental Study on the Effects of Verbal & Material Reinforcement in Children
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대학원 교육심리학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
In recent years, an attention has been given to the, theories of behavior modification which is essentially based on the theories derived from the early works of Pavlov and Skinner. The method and underlying theories of behavior therapy was briefly reviewed, and the relevant literatures in the field were summerized. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of verbal and material reinforcements in children with a variation of partial and continous schedules upon the extinction of the learned responses. Myers' experimental box was used as an apparatus with a little modification to fit the present study. The subjects were 89 boys and girls of a kindergarten in Seoul, who have no previous experiment for the similar kind of experimentation. The sample was randomly divided into 20 subgroups, thus to constitute 3 to 5 subjects for each experimental group. The following hypotheses were derived for testing : 1. The groups which were under material reinforcement condition would show stronger resistance to the extinction procedure than those underverbal reinforcement condition. 2. The combination of the verbal and material reinforcement conditions would be most effective as a reinforcer in children. 3. In regard to the reinforcement schedule, varible schedules would be more effective than continous schedule. The data were analyzed in terms of 5×2×2 factorial analysis of variance, and it general, the following results were observed : Hypothesis 1 was not substantiated. Consequently, it seems reasonable to conclude that verbal reinforcement would elicit the same effect as the material reinforcer. Hypothesis 2 and 3 were also not accepted. Moreover, it was observed that there were significant interactions between kind, amount, and the schedules of reinforcement. The results give a credence to conclude that the combination of verbal and material reinforcements, when it is interacted with the schedule and the amount of reinforcement, would manifest significant effects upon the extinction of a learned reponse in children. The results were discussed in view of the possible implication to the practices of behavior modification in children, and the needs for further studies were presented.
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