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個別化 敎授에 관한 硏究

Title
個別化 敎授에 관한 硏究
Other Titles
(A) STUDY ON THE INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION
Authors
金璟
Issue Date
1979
Department/Major
대학원 시청각교육과
Keywords
개별화교수시청각교육학
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
人口의 폭발적 증가에 따른 敎育人口의 팽창은 학생층의 異質化現象을 가져왔고, 知識의 폭증이라는 사회적 변화는 학교교육의 책임을 과중시켰으며, 사회가 학교에 거는 期待 또한 크게 변모시켰다. 따라서 現在의 敎育體制나 敎育方法으로는 敎育의 效率性과 妥當性을 높일 수가 없다. 이러한 現 시점에서, 敎育方法의 현대화를 위하여 敎育工學의 導入이 불가피하다. 더우기 敎育工學에서 강조하는 敎授의 個別化는 現代 敎育心理學과 敎授理論에 의하여 나타난 가장 뚜렷한 要請이다. 本 硏究에서는 現代社會의 要請과 敎育의 效率性 및 妥當性 問題의 해결책으로 등장한 個別化敎授(Individualized Instruction)의 필요성을 절감하여, 앞으로 우리나라에서도 個別化敎授의 실현을 보게 될 경우에 대비해서, 우리 실정에 맞는 個別化敎授方法을 모색하는 하나의 발판으로 삼기 위하여 美國에서 이미 연구, 개발하여 적용되고 있는 個別化敎授에 관하여 考察하고자 한다. 本 硏究는 文獻硏究方法으로 硏究內容은 다음과 같다. 1. 個別化敎授의 槪念 및 特性을 알아 보고, 個別化敎授의 學習心理學的 背景을 밝힌다. 2. Charlee B. Klasak의 模型을 中心으로 學習者 中心의 體制的인 敎援-學習 體制를 그 요소별로 고찰하고, 個別化敎授를 위한 敎授-學習 體制의 핵심이 되는 敎授媒體의 종류, 媒體의 選擇 및 評價, 媒體의 活用등을 硏究하며, 學習者들이 개별적으로 학습할 수 있는 학습장소를 밝힌다. 그리고 個別化敎授를 효율적으로 실시하기 위한 學習者集團의 組織, 담당교사의 組織, 융통성 있는 시간 계획등을 다룬다. 3. 美國에서 이미 개발하여 적용되고 있는 個別化敎授 프로그램의 종류를 들고, 個別的으로 處方된 敎授(Individually Prescribed Instruction : IPI), PLAN프로젝트(Program for Learning in Accordance with Need), 個別化敎育 프로그램(Personalized Educational Program : PEP)을 중심으로 個別化敎授 프로그램을 硏究한다. 本 硏究에서 다룬 個別化敎授는 오늘날 세계적인 관심을 모으고 있는 敎授 方法이다. 個別化敎授를 효과적으로 실행하기 위해서는 학생의 학습속도, 학습의 量, 敎授媒體에 대한 학생의 기호, 학습능력, 학습준비도 등과 같은 학습에 있어서의 個人差變因을 충분히 고려하기 위한 學習條件을 제공하여야 한다. 따라서 완전한 敎授의 個別化란 현재와 같은 교육 과정과 진급제도, 그리고 현재와 같은 학교시설 속에서 이루어지기는 지극히 어렵다. 그러나 교육과정이나 진급체제가 현상태로 고정되어 있다 할지라도 敎援媒休, 敎授資料, 授業方法, 評價 등의 敎授變人의 다양한 변화를 시킬 수만 있다면 個別化敎授가 가진 長點을 현재의 우리 학교 수업에서도 어느 정도 살릴 수가 있다. 따라서, 정부와 여러 교육기관, 학교당국, 교육에 관심이 있는 여러 學者들이 敎育의 現代化를 절감하고, 특히 학생 個個人의 자발성과 개별성에 주의를 기울여서 個別化敎授에 관한 硏究를 계속 추진한다면, 우리나라의 現 실정에 맞는 個別化敎授方法의 모색도 그렇게 어려운 課題는 아니라고 본다.;As the number of people in need of education has been growing as the result of the explosive increase in population in recent years, a deeper differentiation among students has been brought about, and the rapidly accumulating human knowledge in a kind of social change added to social responsibilities of school education, which in its turn transformed people's expectations toward the school. Current educational system and method, however, can not possibly meet the need for efficient and proper education newly asked for in the above changed social situations. In this connection, educational technology should necessarily be introduced to modernize the present instructional method. The fact that modern educational psychological and instructional theories call, most remarkably, for the adoption of INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION on which, in the EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY a great emphasis is being put may well justify the introduction of the EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY into the present educational method. Acknowledging that the need for the INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION is seriously felt in view of social changes, and their calling for educational efficiency, this study is aimed to research into the INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION already in application in the United States, and to be used as a stepping stone for further search of appropriate ways and means of its application in our indegenous conditions in preparation for the time when the instructional method will be required in the future. This study concentrates mainly on a survey of the literature concerned about the following subjects : 1. To define the concept and characteristics of the INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION, and clarify its educationalpsychological background. 2. To discuss the major components of the systematic instructional system finding a good example in the model of Charles B. Clasek, and to make a study on various instructional media, the choice among the media, the criteria for the choice and the application for the chosen media, all of which as a whole constitute the main part of the instructional system necessary for the INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION, and to study proper places where a student is able to work individually. And then, to deal with how to make a grouping of students, how to arrange a body of teachers for classes and how to budget school hours efficiently for the purpose of carrying out the instruction effectively. 3. To introduce the kinds of INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION programs already developed and adopted in the United States, and to provide this study with a few concrete examples, such as INDIVIDDUALLY PRESCRIBED INSTRUCTION (IPI), Program for Learning in Accordance with Needs (PLAN project), Personalized Educational Program (PEP). The INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION which is main subject of this study, is an instructional method which draws the attention from all over the world. In order to put the INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION into effective practice, learning conditions required to take into full account variables of differences among individuals, such as learning pace, the amount to be learned, preference for instructional media, ability and readiness for learning, should be properly furnished. For that reason, a full-fledged individualization of instruction does not seem to be achieved without altering the current curriculum, class promotion system and school facilities. However, even with no alterations to the present school system and facilities, the INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION can usefully be employed, at least, to some extent, in our traditional classes, if only aided by various modifications to instructional variables, such as instructional media, instructional materials, teaching-learning method and evaluation. Therefore, if we go ahead with our studies in the INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION, especially focusing on voluntariness and individuality of each student, and at the same time those in the government authorities concerned, educational institutions, and school administrations as well as scholars majoring in some periphery fields, come to find it pressing to modernize education, then it would not be a difficult task for us to devise the most suitable model of the INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION for our own conditions.
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