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韓國粧刀에 관한 硏究

Title
韓國粧刀에 관한 硏究
Other Titles
(A) study on Jangdo
Authors
李榮圭
Issue Date
1980
Department/Major
대학원 응용미술과자수전공
Keywords
장도조형의식전통공예
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
本論稿는 粧刀에 관한 硏究를 通하여 先人들의 哀話에 얽힌 時代的인 狀況과 粧刀의 造形意識을 考察 함으로써 機械文明에 의하여 衰退되어 가는 우리 나라 傳統 工藝에 對한 認識을 새롭게 하고 이를 發展的인 方向으로 이끌어 나아갈 수 있는 기틀을 마련하고자 하는 데에 目的을 두었다. 우리의 藝術은 우리 民族의 想像力의 豊富함 속에서 創意力 있게 發展하여 왔다. 事物의 單純化 過程에서도 무척 재치있게 이를 處理하였음을 볼 수 있다. 이는 周圍로부터 아무런 制約을 받지않고 自發的으로 工藝品을 製作하여 온데서 더욱 可能하였으리라 생각되며, 특별하게 지나친 꾸밈을 加하지 않은 것이 우리 粧刀工藝의 特徵이라 할 수 있겠다. 粧刀라 함은 李熙升氏의 國語大辭典에 따르면 「칼집이 있는 작은 칼」로 풀이하고 있는데, 이는 特히 李朝時代 女人들에게 사랑을 받아 왔고 同時에 男子들에게도 利用되어 多樣한 機能을 遂行하여 왔다. 즉 女人들에게는 裝身具로서 뿐만 아니라 護身用으로도 重要한 役割을 하여 왔으며, 男子들에게는 피리를 만들거나 종이를 자르거나 하는 等 實生活에 直接的으로 利用되어 왔다. 粧刀에는 富貴.壽福.安寧.多男.節介 등을 象徵하는 意味의 紋樣 등을 多彩롭게 새겨 이를 늘 가슴에 지니고 다녔으니 當時의 女人들의 所望이 여기에도 哀切하게 나타나 있다. 이들 紋樣은 制限된 空間에 適切하게 單純化하거나 寫實的인 紋樣 혹은 抽象的인 紋樣으로 彫刻의 妙를 이루고 있다. 粧刀는 그 自體가 작은 素材이긴 하지만, 거기에는 많은 意味가 內包되어 있을 뿐만 아니라 우리 祖上들의 얼이 담겨져 있다. 이와 같은 手法을 다른 새로운 工藝品에 應用 發展시켜 우리 傳統工藝의 脈을 이어 나간다는 것은 極히 重要한 일이며, 또한 우리 工藝人들의 義務라고 생각한다.;Noticing our traditional handicrafts which, as hindered by modern mechanical civilization, have gradually been deteriolating. I intended in this thesis through a research on the "Jangdo" (an encased ornamental small knife) to introduce one of our time honored arts and to find a basis upon which further improvement there of may be expected. It is quite interesting to know that our ancestors were very much sensible on the formative arts (gestalt) and also they left many sad and hidden stories behind in relation to the Jangdo reflecting social uneasiness then. The Korean handicraft art has been developed by creative ideas of craftsmen who were able to make their dream int realty. And also it seems that they could engage in their works without any intervention from outside thus freely employing their own talents and skills into the art. This may be proved even in the simplified design of patterns as shown in the traditional handicrafts. And the Jangdo is one of them bearing rather simplified design on the handle and the case of the knife, thus aboiding any excessive decorations thereon. The Jangdo knife was beloved particularly by women of Yi Dynasty (1392-1910) as an accessary but many occasions it played an important role as a weapon of self-defence. At the same time the knife was also made good use by men as well for such practical purposes as making wooden flutes and cutting papers. There were drawn or engraved on the Jangdo with such patterns as symbolizing Wealth, Honor, Long Life Peace and a plenty of male off-spring. It is noteworthy that these patterns were simplified appropriately on the limited space, some with realistic designs and some with abstract. Women of Yi Dynasty always carried the knife bearing such patterns within their bosom. This fact denotes that how eager and even pathetic our ancestors' desires were, and gives us some idea on the general thought then. The Jangdo itself may be a rather small subject, however we observe in it a fine technic and a tough spirit of our ancestors as well. It may be an appointed task of us the handicrafts students to study and apply such technics into other manual arts so that we may preserve the life of our traditional arts and at the same time find a way for further improvement thereof. There have been many individuals who have assisted me so much to make this work a reality. My sincere appreciation is sent to prof. Soon-Hyok Lee, School of Arts Eahwa Women's University, and Mr. Kyoon Hur, a Jangdo craftsman of Ulsan and Mr. Yong-gi Park of Kwany-Yang, Cheonnam Province, a human cultural asset in the manual art, for their warm and valuable advices.
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