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精神薄弱兒의 父母들의 問題와 個別社會事業의 必要性

Title
精神薄弱兒의 父母들의 問題와 個別社會事業의 必要性
Authors
崔聖嬉.
Issue Date
1974
Department/Major
대학원 사회사업학과
Keywords
정신박약아부모개별사회사업
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
精神薄弱은 커다란 社會 問題의 하나이며 人間 生命의 尊嚴性을 생각할 때 正常인 사람들과 꼭 같은 保護가 주어져야 할 것이다. 精神薄弱은 그 狀態의 種類와 樣狀이 多樣하고, 根本的인 治療가 不可能한 것으로, 問題의 擴大를 막고, 精神薄弱兒의 社會 適應性을 길러 社會의 一員으로서 活動할 수 있도록 돕는데 그 意義가 있다. 特히 한 사람의 精神薄弱은 家族 全體의 문제가 되므로 精神薄弱 本人에 대한 써비스와 함께 家族에 대한 써비스도 重要視되어야 한다. 健全한 家族的인 環境은 精神薄弱兒의 成長 發達에 至大한 影響을 끼치기 때문이다. 本人은 精神薄弱兒의 父母들을 위한 社會事業 써비스에 對한 態度調査 硏究를 통해 다음과 같은 內容을 檢證할 수 있었다. ① 精神薄弱兒의 狀態에 對한 父母의 최초의 心理的 反應은 충격, 否定, 罪意識, 수치감, 절망감, 질투, 거부가 다양하게 나타났다. ② 父母들은 精神薄弱에 對해 비교적 올바르게 이해하고 있었다. ③ 精神薄弱인 子女가 正常兒와 같이 되리라고는 期待하지 않고 있으며, 子女의 精神薄弱程度가 심할수록 그 期待는 더 떨어진다. ④ 精神薄弱의 遺傳與否에 있어서는 대다수가 遺傳되지 않는다고 생각하고 있었다. ⑤ 다음에 태어날 아이에 대해서는 별로 念慮되지 않는듯이 보였고 오히려 健康한 아이의 出生을 더 바라고 있었다. ⑥ 精神薄弱 父母의 養育 態度에는 差異點이 나타나지 않으며 어머니가 더 많은 心理的 부담을 가지는 것을 알 수 있었다. ⑦ 子女의 將來에 대해서는 막연하고 絶望的이었으며 社會 保障制度의 確立을 바라고 있었다. 精神薄弱인 子女의 結婚問題에 있어서는 반수 이상이 結婚을 希望하고 있었으며 子女가 男子인 경우에는 그 希望度가 높았다. ⑧ 精神薄弱兒로 因해 집안 분위기가 우울해지거나 父母사이에 불화가 일어난다고 하였다. 兄弟들에게는 心理的으로나 社會的으로 否定的인 影響을 끼친다. ⑨ 兄弟들의 結婚 問題에 있어서는 支障을 받지 않았다는 편이 많았다. ⑩ 父母들은 스스로 子女가 親戚이나 이웃에게서 고립당하고 排折당한다고 믿고 있었다. ⑪ 精神薄弱兒童의 同僚 交際가 어려우므로 가정에서의 保護가 더 큰 比重을 차지한다. ⑫ 特殊學校 敎育費는 대부분의 家庭에 負擔이 되고 있다. 위와 같은 父母나 家族들의 態度와 問題들을 理解하여, 社會事業家는 精神薄弱兒 父母를 위한 써비스에 다음과 같은 役割을 擔當해야 한다. ① Social action을 통하거나 政策 樹立에 關與하여 地域社會의 關心을 刺戟시키고 精神薄弱兒나 그 家族을 위한 政策的인 保護나 法的인 保護 내지는 社會保障制度의 確立을 위해 活動한다. ② 케이스 依賴나 팀워-크나 地域社會 資源에 대한 情報提供 等으로 精神薄弱兒를 위한 可能한 敎育, 施設, 相談 等의 써비스를 統合시키고 연결시킨다. ③ 兒童福祉機關, 家庭福祉機關 또는 保健所 等에서 父母들과의 相談을 통하여 早期發見, 早期治療, 事前 豫防을 한다. ④ 케이스 워-크나 구룹 워-크를 통해 個別的 또는 集團的인 相談을 한다. 精神薄弱兒나 그 家族들에 대한 써비스가 매우 貧弱한 우리나라의 경우 社會事業家는 醫療人이나 敎育者, 心理學者 等과 더불어 精神薄弱兒나 家族들을 保護하기 위한 써비스를 開發하는데 積極的인 役割을 해야 하리라고 생각한다.;Mental retardation, one of the most difficult of social problems, can manifest itself any where in society. There are many gradations of type and cause, and complete treatment is almost impossible. Therefore, treatment centers on alleviation and helping the retardates make a better social adjustment. Since mental retardation is a family problem services to the family members as well as the retardates themselves is a necessity. Family environment is of great importance in the adjustment of retardates to society. Mental retardation is defined as demonstrating some interference in the proper function of mental processes. This means deviation of ability to acquire and maintain acquired knowledge, develop intellectual function, achieve ability for judgement and for transfer of knowledge from one area of learning and training to another related one. This also means inability for normal social adjustment and adaptation. Mental retardation may be caused by demonstrable organic changes in the brain or the etiology may be unknown. There are many variations in the manifestation of mental retardation. My concern here is with the social and emotional aspects of the condition and of their implication for the retarded children's family; and also, with the social services that can be provided to modify the problem. To the parents of a retarded child mental retardation may mean heartache, social ostracism, rebellion against an unfair fate, resignation in the face of unchangeable facts, endless financial worry, or a restless search for cure. The chronic condition of the child may make the parent's life something very different. Social work services are necessary to help these parents and other family members. The following is the result of the research concerning parental attitudes toward the mental retardation and related problems. 1) The initial reactions of the parents of a retarded child were shock denial, guilt shame, bitterness, envy, rejection and so on, especially shock and denial were very common. 2) Most of the parents had a good understanding concerning the nature of retardation. 3) They did not expect their retarded children to become normal and the more the child was severely retarded the less were their expectation. 4) Most of them did not think mental retardation was hereditary. 5) They did not seem to be afraid of having another child. They wanted to have a normal child. 6) The attitudes of the father and mother toward the child reflected no difference but, the mother seemed to have more responsibility in child caring. 7) The parent felt helpless concerning the child's future and expressed the need for governmental help and concern. 8) More than half of the parents wanted their retarded children to be married, especially when the child was a son. 9) Many of the parents said that the family atmosphere was often sad and because of the child they had troubles. 10) For the other siblings the mental retardation had a negative effect psychologically and socially. 11) Most of the parent did not feel there was any particular problem relating to a mental retarded child when their other children were planning to marry. That is, the partner's family did not reject the family because of the mental retarded child. 12) The parents themselves thought that these children were rejected and isolated by neighbors and relatives. 13) As it was very difficult for the retarded children to have a peer relationship the family member should play a more important role for the retardates' social relationship. 14) The education fee for the retardates imposed a heavy burden on most of the families. Social workers should understand the aforementioned attitudes and problems of the family of the retarded children and provide following services. 1) Through the initiation of social action help set up policies that will make the community more aware of the problems of mental retardation in the area of recognition and alleviation. 2) Integrate and coordinate possible services for the retarded through case referral, team work and by giving the information about the community resources. 3) Working with the parents at the child welfare agencies, family welfare agencies or public health centers social workers could contribute to the early identification, early treatment and prevention of mental retardation. 4) Counseling parents of retarded children through case work and group work processes. 5) Participate in research concerning mental retardation. Since the existing services for the mental retarded and their families are inadequate here in Korea social workers should play an active role in helping develop policy and services for their protection.
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