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地域社會開發的 견지에서 본 地域民의 慾求分析 및 評價

Title
地域社會開發的 견지에서 본 地域民의 慾求分析 및 評價
Authors
金德姬.
Issue Date
1975
Department/Major
대학원 사회사업학과
Keywords
지역사회개발지역민욕구분석
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to analyze what the inhabitants of changing communities are in common need and evaluate its impacts on the development of their communities and the society as a whole. In the knowledge of the researcher, there have been no such attempts made in the field of social work in Korea. In this regard, this study can be considered as the first, if not satisfactory, experimentation in this direction. Social and community development poses one of main problems among advanced and developing nations alike as have been shown in a number of well known development projects in many countries especially since 1950's. Korea is no exception, of course. With NACOM established in 1958, governmental and voluntary agencies as well have initiated a number of such projects. But the result, in spite of theirr initial enthusiasm, was far from being satisfactory. This study is based on the assumption that such undertakings should take into account the needs of the community inhabitants in advance. It also presumes that a project, if it is to promote the welfare of the residents, should be able to encourage their positive participation and help improve their ability to solve their problems by themselves. With the above purposes in mind, this paper discuss following research problems : Firstly, what constitute the common needs of the inhabitants in the community under study? Secondly, in what respect, their needs are considered in common or differ from one after another? In analyzing their needs, following elements will be taken into consideration - the physical environment of the community, types of interviewee, and their respective social status; And lastly, what importance their needs have for the development of their communities? With the help of ample research materials in the subject, the researcher has conducted a survey among 400 sample households (of 4,089 households) of the Daeshin-dong community, Sodaemun-ku, Seoul, during a 18-day period ending July 26, 1975. The survey employed such methods as questionnaire, uncontrolled observation and interview. A. The survey shows that the common needs of the Daeshin-dong inhabitants are; 1) environment ⅰ) public facilities 40.6% ⅱ) social environment 38.8% 2) health and public hygiene 27.2% 3) economic concerns 40.8% 4) education 43.1% 5) youth problem 22.0% 6) neighbor relationship 24.6% B. That the common needs of respective areas and groups under study are; 1) club activities for housewives 2) consultations of family problems 3) help for housework 4) uneducated youth problem 5) problems in the purchase activity 6) crime-ridden environment 7) need for community leaders 8) problems of the aged C. This paper attempts to explain the developmental importance of the above needs according to the following criterions. These two criterions will be employed in parallel. 1) The common needs conducive to the community development, are assumed to be ⅰ) the needs contributing to the recognition of their problems. ⅱ) the needs to enable them to solve their problems ⅲ) the needs for participation ⅳ) the needs for self-help ⅴ) the needs for cooperation ⅵ) the needs for the development and mobilization of community resources ⅶ) the concern for better community leadership ⅷ) the needs for organizing their own efforts ⅸ) the needs for assistance from without 2) The impacts of their needs on the community development, are also be examined from the following angles; ⅰ) positive - neutral - negative ⅱ) direct - indirect. ⅲ) long - term - short - term. In conclusion, the researcher emphasizes the value of analyzing the common needs of community inhabitants in carrying out community develop ment projects with success. In more practical sense, the researcher will be glad to see this small study helpful to the evaluation of development possibility the community of Daeshin-dong may have.;이 論文은 變化하는 地域社會住民의 共通欲求를 正確하게 判斷하고 측정하여 보다 科學的인 方法으로 그 欲求의 開發的 意義를 摸索하기 위하여 硏究를 試圖한 것이다. 이와같은 試圖가 일찌기 없었던 것으로 간주되며, 따라서 이 硏究는 매우 實驗的이다. 社會開發 및 地域社會開發은 先後進國을 莫論하고 世界各國의 共同關心事로서 1950年代以後 各國의 水準에서 多樣하게 地域開發事業이 이루어 지고 있다. 우리나라의 경우 1958年 地域社會開發中央委員會(NACOM)가 活動을 始作하면서부터 政府部處 및 其他 公·私立機關에 의해 地域開發事業이 展開되고 있다. 그러나 地域社會開發이 착수된 結果面에서는 반드시 成功的이지는 못하였다. 本 硏究者는 地域社會開發事業의 成功的 結果를 期待하기 위하여 地域住民의 共通欲求를 土臺로 地域開發事業이 이루어져야 한다는 것을 基本前提로 삼는 바이며, 住民의 主體的 參與를 通하여 地域의 福祉向上은 물론, 住民의 自體問題解決能力을 增進시키는데 地域社會開發事業의 主眼點을 두어야 한다는 立場이다. 이 硏究에서 本 硏究者는 다음과 같은 調査問題를 提起하고자 한다. 첫째, 調査對象地域住民의 共通的 欲求는 무엇인가? 둘째, 地域住民의 欲求가 어떤 側面에서 共通的이며, 어떤 側面에서 로 다른가? 이 질문과 關聯하여, (1) 地域의 物理環境的 立地條件 (2) 調査의 應答者 類型 (3) 地域住民의 階層을 關聯 要素로 가상하고 그 妥當性을 檢討하였다. 셋째, 地域住民의 欲求들은 어떤 開發的 意義를 갖는가? 硏究方法은 旣存文獻의 探索을 通하여 地域社會開發에 對한 理論的 背景을 갖추고, 大新洞 地域의 住民을 對象으로 質問紙에 의한 調査와 調査對象地域의 관찰, 面接등의 方法으로 硏究하였다. 이 硏究結果 나타난 사실은 다음과 같다. A. 大新洞 地域住民의 共通欲求 (1) 生活環境問題에서 公益施設 不便이 40.6%, 居住環境의 不便이 38.8% (2) 健康과 關聯된 問題 27/2% (3) 經濟的 欲求 乃至 關心事 40.8% (4) 敎育問題 43.1% (5) 子女의 性格發達에 對한 關心 22.0% (6) 이웃關係에 對한 欲求 24.6% B 特定 地域 乃至 集團의 共通欲求 (1) 主婦組織活動의 希望 : 地域 Ⅰ 24.8%, 階層上 22.8% (2) 家庭問題의 도움여부 : 地域 Ⅲ, Ⅳ, 階層上 (3) 家政婦의 必要 : 階層上 70.7%, 階層中 30.9% (4) 未進學 靑少年問題 : 階層下 (5) 구매활동에의 문제점 : 地域 Ⅲ, Ⅳ, 階層中, 下 (6) 遊興街 및 우범성 社會環境問題 : 地域 Ⅱ 22.2% (7) 地域指導者의 必要 : 應答者가 X인 경우 20.0% (8) 老人의 세대갈등, 소외감問題 : 階層上 27.8% C. 地域民 欲求의 開發的 評價 地域民의 欲求를 評價하기 위하여 다음과 같은 評價基準을 設定하였다. 1. 地域開發促進欲求 (1) 住民의 問題意識을 造成하는 欲求 (2) 問題解決意慾 (3) 參與意慾 (4) 自助意慾 (5) 協同意慾 (6) 地域資源開發 및 動員과 關聯된 欲求 (7) 토착지도자 發見 및 育成의 欲求 (8) 住民組織에 對한 關心과 欲求 (9) 外部機關의 技術的 財政的 支에 對授한 欲求 2. 開發에 미치는 效果에 따른 欲求 分類 (1) 積極的, 中立的, 消極的 欲求 (2) 直接的, 間接的 欲求 (3) 短期的, 長期的 欲求 以上의 1과 2를 교차시켜 欲求의 評價基準으로 삼았으며 앞에서 論議한 바 있는 地域民의 共通欲求를 討議한 것이다. 이와 같은 硏究를 契機로 보다 確實한 硏究가 이 방면에서 나올 수 있다면 매우 多幸한 일이겠으며, 보다 實質的으로는 이 硏究가 大新洞地域의 開發可能性을 部分的으로나마 評價하는데 寄與할 수 있기를 바란다.
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