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服飾, 奢侈 禁制考察

Title
服飾, 奢侈 禁制考察
Other Titles
(The) Ban on Costume and Luxury : (A) Research based on Yijosillok(Revitable Records Yi Dynasty)
Authors
白性禮.
Issue Date
1979
Department/Major
교육대학원 가정과교육전공
Keywords
복식사치금제조선왕조실록
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
文化의 모든 面이 그렇듯이 우리나라의 服飾은 中國의 服飾을 導入하면서부터 多樣해졌다. 新羅 興德王代에 이미 唐의 百官冠服制度를 수입 수용한 것을 시초로 「高麗圖經」 등의 記錄을 통해서도 그 影響은 至大했음을 알 수 있다. 그러므로 우리의 服飾構造는 中國服飾과의 二重構造 속에서만 그 考察이 可能한 것이 현실이다. 이 硏究는 韓國服飾史의 基礎作業이라 할 수 있는 服飾禁制와 奢侈禁制를 考察함으로써 服飾史 내지는 風俗史 硏究의 基礎가 되고, 잃어가는 우리 服飾의 원형을 再構할 수 있으며, 服飾의 時代的 變貌를 살필 수 있고, 現代社會에서 만연하고 있는 奢侈風潮를 改善하는 方案을 원용할 수 있을 것이라는 생각으로 出發한 것이다. 本考에서는 「李朝實錄風俗關係資料撮要」, 「李朝各種文獻風俗關係資料撮要」, 「漢城抄存」, 「李朝服飾關係資料」 등을 基本資料로 하여 服飾禁制와 奢侈禁制로 大別하여 살펴 본 結果는 다음과 같다. 李朝社會가 많은 禁制를 내리고 있는 것은 첫째, 封建社會制度 속에서 治者가 自身들의 身分과 階級的 等威를 保護하기 위한 身分階級的 側面, 둘째, 무분별한 奢侈性向을 規制하기 위한 奢侈規制的 側面, 셋째, 自國의 것에 대한 自卑에서 오는 事大主義的 側面 등에서 그 禁制動因을 찾아 볼 수 있다. 朝鮮王朝實錄에 보이는 織物의 禁制는 모두 27件으로 그 중 惡布의 織組, 綿布, 五升布 등의 순으로 나타나고 王朝別로는 中宗, 太宗, 成宗 순으로 나타나는데 奢侈性向의 만연을 기화로 惡布를 織組하여 利를 취하는 무리에 대한 規制가 그 目的이었다. 朝鮮王朝實錄에 보이는 服色의 禁制는 모두 68件으로 禁色으로는 黃色, 白色, 紅色, 紫色, 灰色, 玉色 등이 廣範하게 規制되었으며 王朝別로는 世宗, 太宗, 中宗, 成宗 등의 순으로 나타나고 있는데, 李朝와 같은 封建的 中央集權 權力構造下에서는 服色은 곧 身分等位를 像徵하는 것이기 때문에 가장 重要한 問題였다. 朝鮮王朝實錄에 보이는 奢侈禁令은 모두 131件으로 婚葬奢侈, 衣服奢侈 등이 제일 많고, 王朝別로는 中宗, 燕山君, 成宗 순으로 나타나고 있으며 禁奢節目으로 가장 代表的인 것은 역시 金銀珠玉과 紗羅綾緞이 大宗을 이루고 있는데, 金銀珠玉은 매년 中國에 進貢해야만 하는 國家的인 苦衷에서, 紗羅綾緞은 儉約의 習俗을 기르기 위한 意圖에서였다. 以上의 禁制를 違反하는 者에 대한 罰則은 주로 「經國大典」의 〈刑典〉, 〈禁制條〉에 依據하고 있는데 斬刑에서 減一等까지 多樣했다. 禁制를 考察하는 가운데 社會秩序를 바로 잡고 弊風을 없애기 위해 가장 腐心했던 임금은 世宗, 成宗, 太宗, 中宗 등이었으며 이 많은 禁制가 주로 堂上官 以下 庶民階層에게만 一方的으로 적용되었기 때문에 쉽게 根絶되지 않았다. 또 지나친 禁制政策은 우리의 服飾, 工藝, 工業技術의 發達을 저해하는 結果를 가져와 이 禁制政策은 그 功過가 반반이었다고 할 수 있겠다.;As it is true in other aspects of Korean culture, Korean national costume has developed in diverse manners with the introduction of Chinese culture. As early as the reign of King Hungdok(A.D. 826-835)of Silla dynasty Korea imported official uniforms of the Tang dynasty. Since then Korean costume had been greatly influenced by the costume of China, as it is evidenced by Kao-li t'u-ching(Things heard and seen in Korea in 1123 by a Chinese emissary). For this reason, Korean costume can be duly understood only in the context of its relationships with Chinese costume. This study focuses itself on the consideration of the system of the ban on costume and luxuries, which is a basic part of the study of the history of Korean costume and custom The underlying intention of this study is to retrace the prototype of Korean costume which has been disappearing from our sight and to review the changing phases of costume in different periods. Too, it is the hope of this author that this kind of study would serve to help the current campaign in Korean society to improve the social climate that values luxuries. This study consists of the examination of the system of the ban on costume and luxury, and it draws upon the following sources : Yijo sillok p'ungsock kwan'gye charyo ch'walyo (Summary of materials concerning Korean custom as found in Veritable Records of Yi dynasty); Yijo kakchong munhon p'ungsok kwan'gye charyo ch'walyo (Summary of the materials concerning custom as found in various writings of yi dynasty); Hansong ch'ojin; Yijo poksik kwan'gye charyo(Materials concerning the costume of Yi era). Yi Korean society had imposed various bans on costume and luxuries for the following reasons : (1) to preserve and protect the status honor of the ruling classes; (2) to check prevalent arbitrary tendencies for luxuries; (3) as a reflection of traditional Sino-centric cultric cultural orientation based on the principle of 'Serve-the-Great' China. Among the 27 cases of the ban on cloth as recorded in the Yijo sillok are the bans on the weaving of coarse cloth cotton cloth and hemp cloth during the reigns of chungjong (1506-1544),T'aejong(1401-1418), and Sengjong(1470-1493). These bans were imposed in order to check the profiteers who tried to take the advantage of the social climate that was highly conducive to luxuries. There are 68 cases of the bans on the use of different colors recorded during the reigns of Sejong (1419-1450), T'ae jong, Chungjong, and Songjong. The forbidden colors ranged from yellow to white, red, purple, gray, and jade green. Different colors represented status distinctions in the traditional Yi Korean society; and so they were regarded as very serious matters. There are 131 cases of the bans on the luxuries involving funerals and costume during the reigns of Chungjong Yonsan'gun(1495-1505), and Songjong. The typical items which were put under the ban were gold, silver, jewels, and silk, Gold, silver, and jewels were under the ban because they were precious metals with limited supply which Korean government had struggled to Present to China as yearly Tribute. Silk was banned in order to encourage frugality The pusnishments for the deviats which included beheading was drawn upon the various penals codes provided in the Kyongguk taejon (Great National Code of Yi dynasty). Kings Sejong, T'aejong, and Chungjong were particularly concerned with the extermination of evil practices and the establishment of social order. But it is to be noted that the variety of bans were one-sidedly applied to the commoners and minor and middle-level officials only, thus failing to exterminate social evil universally. The aforementioned policy resulted in impeding the development of costume, industrial art, and technology. The policy, therefore, can be seen as one which shared merits and defects equally.
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