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國際結婚에 있어서의 夫婦葛藤
- 國際結婚에 있어서의 夫婦葛藤
- Other Titles
- Inter-marital conflicts : a study on Korean females married to U.S. Husbands
- Issue Date
- 대학원 사회사업학과
- 국제결혼; 부부갈등; 미국군인
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- Since the Korean War, the number of Inter-Marital cases has increased. The divorce rate for these marriages has also increased. Consequently, a Social Worker has to show concern on the problems which lead to these inter-marital conflicts and divorces, and a study should be made in order to develop the programs which may help solve or alleviate these problems.
The writer first scrutinized the books and articles on marriages and inter-marriages in corder to equip herself with sound theoretical backgrounds. These materials suggest that inter-marriages not only have commoness with regular marriages but also unique features.
The writer during her field work at the. Social Work Office, Mental Health Clinic, U.S. Army Hospital in Seoul had the opportunity to make fairly close observations of inter-marital cases.
The areas of investigation for this thesis were derived from these observations and the theoretical studies mentioned above. Problem characteristics were probed with the couples who either came to the agency by their own initiative or by referral. The writer then, in the process of formulating these problem characteristics, tried to find the common and unique features of inter-marriages as contrasted to regular marriages. In order to answer these questions, the information on the following items were collected : biodata, problem characteristics as presented by the respondents, family backgrounds, personality characteristics, marriage motives, and husband and wife relationship.
The data on these items were also necessary to study the conflicts. Questionaires, were developed around the above items and were administered to the Korean females who came or were refered to the Social Work Office of the U.S. Army Hospital in Seoul because of the problems occured in their inter-marital lives with U.S. Citizens. Twenty such cases were interviewed with the questionnaires. The major findings based on the analyses of these questionnaire data are as followes.
1. Biodata Characterisitics of the Cases
Majority of these females were in the age group of 21 to 35. They tend to be older than husbands. Most of them have been married less than four years. With regard to educational backgrounds, 50% of the females were in the group with education more than junior high school and less than senior high school while 80% of the males were in the same group, thus men showing slightly higher level of education. 60% of the females were prostitutes before their marriages. For most them, these were their first marriages and they wanted to continue the marital relationship in spite of the conflicts.
19 of the males were professional soldiers who had served in the mititary for more than ten years and they intended to be in the active service in the future For most of them, average monthly income was in the range between $410 to $600 and it was their opinion that they can carry economically stable life with this income.
2. Problem Characteristics as Presented by the Respondents.
The characteristsics of the problems can be categorized into the following three : 1) The problems associated with the personality traits of the husbands. 2) The probles associated with the economic desires of the wives. 3) The problems associated with behavior patterns common to both husbands and wives.
The emotional basic need hidden behind the problem traits of husband' personalities was excessive dependency. Problem behaviors and orientations of the females were largely due to economically poor conditions of their parent's families and their social experiences before their marriages. As to the problems common to both husbands and wives, the communication problem and, therefore, the problem of inadequate mutual understanding arising out of the heterogenous cultural backgrounds were most serious.
3. Family Backgrounds of Females
Most of the females left their homes in their teens because of the poverty and family discord, and were influenced by their friends in leaving homes. More than half of the females said that their parents were in discord. Most of the females expressed negative attitude toward their parents because of the latter's neglect of the former in economic and other supports. Yet they felt obligations to their parent's families and wanted to help in economic terms in every possible way because of the poor economic conditions of the latter.
4. Dominent Personality Characteristics of the Females
The most frequently observed characteristics of the female personality were excessive independence, and emotional instability were the second in frequency. Their personality tendencies toward husbands were nagging, exessive requests, passiveness, interventions, and domination. For children, they were immature in child education practices and were overly dependent on husbands. Toward parents and brothers and sisters, most females showed much concern and felt
responsibilities. Their mental physical symptoms were miscarriages, heavy head-ache, mental disorder, alimentary disorder, and the attempt to kill oneself.
5. Females Motives for Marriage
For most of the females the primary motive was economic stability. The choice of foreign counterpart was in most of the cases influenced by this factor in addition to the affections and humanistic treatment by males.
In spite of the conflicts, they wanted to continue the marriage relationship due to the Korean traditional concept of marriage which requires indefinite lasting of the first marriage and economic dependency of women upon men. At the time of the marriage, the parents and relatives were either indifferent or negatives in their attitudes. Yet, they perceive their friends were positive to the marriage.
6. Marital Relationship
These couples mainly use English in their communication. The subjects of our research feel much difficulty in communicating in English. Life pattern is dred around that of husbands. They have difficulty in attaining full_ understanding of each other because of different cultural backgrounds, and this creates the problems of marital conflicts.
The females show relative satisfaction toward their husbands because they maintain economic stability and value the home more highly than Korean husbands. On the other hand, they complain about the personality characteristics, sexual behavior pattern and extra-marital affairs of their husbands.
The attitude toward problem solving is that of solving by herself as much as possible, and they are very timid and are not accustomed to seeking help from : help from an agency. However, once they are acquainted with the programs of an agency and are acustomed to getting help to a certain extent, the change in their attitude is much faster than men.
The conclusions of this research are as follows.
First, the problem behaviors and orientations of men with some exceptions were largly due to their personality characteristics. The latter were basically associated with over-dependency. This trait was developed through enviornmental factors which governed their personality development process and life experiences.
Second, Problem behaviors and orientations of female were also largely due to their enviornmental factors. However, for female, economic poverty played the dominient role. This factor was associated to their motives for marriages, the choice of foreign males and also to their wish to maintain the marital relationship.
Third, most of the women show positive concern to their parents, families and with varying degrees they are helping the latter economically. This is due to the Korean custom surrounding the traditional Oriental family system. Especially, the female who grew in the country and whose parent's families are poor show more strong sense of responsibility toward the parents and brothers and sisters irrespective of the order of her birth in the family.
This attitude and behavior were conspicuous among the women who experienced the prostitution. For these. women, helping the parents' family was psycholo gical compensation for the guilt feeling associated with prostitution and the contempt shown by reference persins toward the inter-marriages.
Forth, the female tend to assert that the cause of marital conflicts is with the problem behaviors and orientations of their husbands.
In other words, they are self-centered in phrasing the problem. This tendency was also observable in their attitude toward problem solving. Rather than trying to find the causes which both partners can mutually recognize, they tend to ask for mediation and counselling based on self-centered needs.;6.25사변이후 늘어나는 國際結婚의 數와 거기에 따라 國際結婚의 離婚率도 增加되고 있다. 그리하여 社公事業的인 面에서 國際結婚 夫婦葛藤 내지 離婚에 이르는 問題에 관한 關心을 增加 시키고, 그들을 위한 Program發展을 위해 調査硏究가 必要하다고 생각했다.
먼저 一般結婚 및 國際結婚에 관한 理論的 背景을 文獻에 의하여 調査했다. 그결과 國際結婚이 一般結婚과 共通點이 있고 또 특수한것이 있는것을 알았다. 美人軍病院 精神衛生科 社會事業 部에서 실습기간 동안에 얻은 資料와 理論을 근거로 하여 調査 質問을 갖게되었다. 즉 상담을 申請하여 왔거나 依賴되어온 國際結婚夫婦間의 問題性格과 一般結婚 夫婦緖의 問題性格間에 어떠한 共通點이 있으며, 어떠한 특수한 것이 있는가에 관한 質問이였다. 그러한 質問에 답을 얻기위해 조사대상자의 事實的背景, 調査對象者가 提示한 問題의 性格, 調査對象이된 女子의 家庭背景, 性格的 주 경향과 結婚動機, 그리고 夫婦關係등에 대하여 알아 보는것이葛藤을 硏究하는데에 적절하다고 생각했다. 이런 內容을 質問紙化했으며, 美八軍病院 精神衛生料 社會事業部에 國際結婚 夫婦間에 問題가 있어 상담을 신청하여 오거나 依賴되어 오는 女子들을 主調査對象으로하여 20사례를 調査했다.
面接調査를 통하여 完集된 質問紙를 分析한 結果 얻은 結論은 다음과 같다.
1. 調査對象의 事實的 背景
大部分의 女子들은 21세에서 33세사이로 젊었으며, 夫婦사이에 婦人 연령이 남편보다 많은 경향이 있다. 結婚지속기간은 대부분 4년 未滿이였다. 敎育程度는 中學校以上 고교卒業以下가 女子는 50%, 男子는 80%로서 男子가 높은것을 보여 주었으며 女子들의 結婚前 직업으로는 윤락여성 출신이 60%였다. 그러나 大部分 初婚이였으며 夫婦사이에 葛藤은 있으나 될 수있는한 結婚지속을 원하고 있었다. 男子들의 職業은 19名이 職業軍人이며 半數以上이 10年以上의 長期 복무자들로서 19명중 2명외엔 계속 군복무를 원하고 있다.
그들의 月收入은 S 410-600사이가 대부분이며 어느정도 안정된 經濟生活을 할수있다고 당사자들이 말한다.
2. 調査對象者가 提示한 問題의 性格
夫婦關係에서 發生된 問題는 주로 남편의 性格과 關聯된 問題와 여자들의 經濟的인 것과 관련된 問題, 그리고 夫婦共通의 行動에서 問題視된 것으로서 모두가 중요성을 갖고 나타났다. 남편들의 問題的 行動과 性向뒤에 숨어있는 情緖的 基本慾求는 지나친 依存性이였으며, 婦人들의 問題的 行動과 性向은 가난했던 家庭背景과 過去 生活 경험이 관계있었다.
그리고 夫婦共通的인 問題는 이들 夫婦가 文化背景의 異質性때문에 언어의 장애와 相互理解에서오는 國際結婚未婦의 特殊問題가 있었다.
3. 調査對象이된 女子들의 家庭背景
國際結婚한 韓國女子로서 調査對象이된 女子들의 대부분은 經濟的 窮乏과 가정불화나 친구의 영향으로 10代에 가출하였으며 父母들 사이는 半數 以上이 좋지 않았다. 대부분의 女子들은 父母와의 關係에서 등한시나 經濟的인 理由로 부정적인 경향을 나타냈다. 女子들의 친정 경제 사정은 대체로 困難했고, 女子들은 친정에 經濟的 부담을 느끼며 가능한한 돕기를 원하고 있다.
4 . 調査對象이된 女子들의 性格的 주경향
調査對象이된 女子들의 性格的 傾向으로 가장 많이 나타난것은 지나친 依存性이였고, 지배적이고 지나치게 獨立的인 性格과 情緖 的으로 不安定한 性格은 2차적이였다.
女子들의 남편에 대하여 나타난 性格的 경향은 잔소리, 많은 要求, 수동적, 간접적, 支配的이 였으며, 子女에 대하여는 子女 敎育에서 미성숙하고 남편에게 依存的이였다.
부모 형제에 대하여는 대체로 關心이 많고 責任感을 느끼고 있었다. 여자들은 정신적 육체적연 징후로 자연유산, 심한 두통, 정신이상, 위장병, 자살시도등으로 나타났다.
5. 調査對象이된 女子들의 結婚動機
主對象者들의 結婚動機는 經濟的安定이 첫째 이유였으며, 外國人配遇者를 택한 이유는 男子들의 인정있고 人格的인 대우에 영향을 받았고, 經濟的安定 可能性에 대한 기대가 결정적인 動機였다. 그들을 夫婦間에 葛藤이 있으나 한번 結婚 하였으면 끝까지 살아야 한다는 한국적 사고방식과 女子들이 經濟能力이 없는 이유, 그리고 子女들 때문에 結婚持續을 원하고 있다. 結婚當時 부모나 친척들의 態度는 냉담하거나 거부적인 態度였으나 친구들은 實際的인 面에서 肯定的인 態度를 보였다.
이들 부부는 주로 英語만을 使用하며 主對象者들의 영어실력은 의사소통에 많은 불편을 느끼고 있다. 그들은 夫婦生活에서 남편 중심적 생활양식을 취하고 있으며, 文化背景의 異質性때문에 相互理解에 어려움을 당면하여 이것이 問題의 原因이 되고있다. 國際結婚한 한국여자들은 美國인 남편이 經濟安定을 시켜주며 家庭을 중하게 여겨주는 면에서 한국남자들과 비교하여 만족하고 있다. 그러나 反面에 남편의 性格的인面, 性生活, 不貞 등에서 불만을 표시하고 있다.
主對寡者들의 問題解決에 대한 태도는 問題가 생겼을때 될수 있는한 스스로 해결하려는 경향이 있으며, 기관을 이용하고 도움을 받는데 익숙하지 못하고 소심하다.
그러나 女子들이 기관 Service에 대하여 알게되고 도움받는데 어느정도 익숙해지면 처음과는 반대로 남자들보다 더욱 積極的으로 變하는 경향이 있다.
실제 조사에서 얻은 資料分析을 하는 과정에서 남자들의 問題的 行動과 性向을 몇몇 발견할 수 있었는데 그중에는 지나친 依存性이 주요한 것으로 나타났다. 그리고 이 依存性을 그들의 과거 경험과 자라난 환경과 관련이 있는 것으로 보였다. 그리고 國際結婚하는 여자들 중에서 가난한 家庭背景을 갖은 여자들 일수록 結婚이후에도 계속 經濟的 慾求가 강하며 부부慕藤의 원인을 초래할 수 있다는 것도 分析結果 얻은 結論이다.
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