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靑少年家出의 要因分析과 그對策에 관한 硏究

靑少年家出의 要因分析과 그對策에 관한 硏究
Other Titles
(An) analytic study of factors and corrective measures for juvenile runaways in Korea
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대학원 사회사업학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
이 硏究의 目的은 우리나라 家出靑少年의 實態와 家出의 要因을 分析한 후 그에 대한 豫防策과 治療策을 提示하려는데 있다. 이 硏究에서는 이 分野에 關한 여러가지 文獻과 硏究資料를 參考하였고 그 外에 內務部治安局, 保健社會部, 서울특별시 및 檢察廳에서 提供한 資料를 利用하였다. 이 論文에서는 靑少年의 年齡을 7세부터 그 上限線을 20歲까지로 하였다. 그것은 우리나라 民法이나 通念이 20세 未滿을 未成年으로 간주하기 때문이다. 우리나라 家出靑少年의 現況을 보면 1972年에 12,636명으로 治安局統計에 나타났다. 지난 3年間에 約 13%의 增加를 보였다. 家出靑少年의 實態를 分析한 結果 다음과 같은 特性을 지적할 수가 있었다. (1) 年齡分布는 16세~19세가 가장 많다.(50.3%) (2) 過半數가 缺損家庭出身이다.(60%) (3) 敎育水準은 74.7%가 國民學校졸업 以下이다. (4) 出身地域을보면 大都市가 가장많고 (56%) 다음이 農村이다 (25%) 家出女性은 대부분이 (62.7%) 農村出身이다. 즉 家出은 農村으로부터 都市에의 離脫이기도 하지만 大都市에서의 家庭離脫이기도 하다. (5) 家出動機는 貧困과 家庭不和가 主要한것이지만 交友誘引과 都市憧憬도 적지않은 比重을 차지한다. (6) 社會階層面에서보면 敎育水準이 낮고 父母의 職業이 不安定하고 經濟的으로 貧困한 下流層에 속한다. 家出靑少年에서 發展하는 率이 많은 問題靑少年으로 非行少年 淪落女性 街頭職業少年등을 들 수 있는데 그들의 特性도 家出靑少年과 비슷하다. 단 非行少年과 淪落女性의 非行과 淪落의 動機를 보면 친구의 유인이 특히 높은 比率을 보여주고 있다. 위의 特性과 實態에 基礎를 두고 靑少年家出의 要因을 家庭的要因, Personality 原因, 社會階層的要因, 社會環境的要因 및 文化變動的要因의 다섯가지로 分析하였는바 家庭的인 要因과 社會階層的인 要因이 가장 큰 比重을 차지한다는 것을 알 수 있었다. 이런 要因들은 單獨的으로 靑少年家出의 直接的인 原因을 만드는 경우가 거의 없고 여러가지가 複合的으로 作用하여 家出을 超來한다는것이 强調되어야 하겠다. 이상과 같은 硏究結果에 根據해서 靑少年家出에 對한 社會福祉的 對策을 豫防과 治療面에 考察해보았다. 豫防策으로 다음과 같은 것을 提示한다. (1) 調和된 開發政策 ㄱ. 새마을事業을 實質的인 農漁民의 所得增大事業으로 推進시킬것. ㄴ. 工業을 地方으로 分散시킬것. ㄷ. 社會保障制度를 擴大시킬것. (2) 敎育機會의 擴大 ㄱ. 義務敎育을 擴大 시킬것. ㄴ. 技術敎育施設을 擴充할것. ㄷ. 鄕土學校를 設立할것. (3) 隣保事業의 擴大 ㄱ. 家庭强化策으로 「主婦敎室」과 「健康敎室」을 운영할 것. ㄴ. 建設的인 靑少年클럽活動을 勸奬할 것. ㄷ. 學業에 뒤떨어진 兒童과 文化的으로 뒤떨어진 兒童들에 대한 課外指導와 Recreation을 지도할것. (4) 學校社會事業의 發展 學校에 專門的인 社會事業家를 配置할것. 治療策으로는 다음과 같이 提案한다. (1) 全國各市道에 家出兒 一時保護所를 設置한다. 現在의 英育兒院이나 浮浪兒收容施設을 轉用해야 한다. (2) 一時保護所에는 專門的要員이 配置되어 兒童에게 專門的 써비스를 提供해야 한다. (3) 收容兒童의 生活環境을 向上시킬 수 있도록 施設을 改良해야 한다.;The purpose of this paper is to study the juvenile problem in this country. To examine their background and characteristics, analize basic factors of their runaway action, and to suggest some preventive and treatment measures for the problem. For this study, literature and statistical materials of previous studies have been utilized besides those materials furnished by the Police Bureau of Internal Department, the Department of Health and Social Affairs, the Seoul City Office, and the Prosecutor's Office. There is no clear definition of the word "juvenile" in terms of age, but this study has dealt with young persons between the ages of seven and twenty. The upper limit of twenty has been set because both our civil law and society in general regards anyone under twenty years of age as juvenile. The number of juvenile runaways in the country for 1972 was listed as 12,636 on the Police Bureau statistics. In the past three years, the number has increased by about thirteen percent. A survey on the background of juvenile runaways indicates the following characteristics : a. The largest number of juvenile runaways has been found in the age bracket of sixteen to nineteen. (50.3%) b. Over the half of the runaways come from broken homes. (60%) c. Primary school graduates or less learned occupy 74.7% of them. d. Areawise, the greatest number of juvenile runaways come from big cities (56%) and 25% from rural area. In case of female runaways, the majority of them (62.7%) come from farming areas. Thus, the runaway problem is a phenomenon of the urban area as well as it is an exodus phenomenon from rural area to the urban area. e. Major causes of runaway are poverty and family dissent with considerable weight contributed by seduction by friends and yearning for urban life. f. Viewed from social strata, they belong to the lower social stratum with lower educational level, parents' occupation being unstable, and economically poor. Other problems which develop from being a runaway include juvenile delinquents, prostitutes, and street vendar-workers who have many of the same charateristics as juvenile runaways, except that friendly seduction was a greater causal factor in the delinquent motive of juvenile delinquents and prostitutes. Analysis has been made, based on the characteristics and background of the juvenile runaways, on five basic factors, namely, home, personality, social stratum, social environment, and cultural change, with the results of finding the home and social stratum to be the most influential causal factors. It must be emphasized, hower, that any one or two of these factors seldom directly cause runaway, but it is caused by the cooperative work of multiple causal factors. Based on the result of this study, some preventive and treatment measures for social welfare of juvenile runaways are suggested here. Preventive measures are : a. Balanced development policy 1. The new village movement projects should be promoted to increase actual income farmers and fishermen. 2. Industries should be dispersed to the rural area. 3. Social security system should be expanded. b. Expansion of education opportunity. 1. Expansion of compulsory education. 2. Promotion of technological training. 3. Establishment of community schools. c. Expansion of community welfare program. 1. "houswife class room" and "Health class room" should be operated as a measure of family reinforcement. 2. Constructive youth-club activities should be encouraged. 3. After-school guidance should be provided for children who are behind academecally and culturally. Recreation programs should be provided for these deprived children. d. Development of school social work. Schools must employ professional social workers to deal with emotional problems of school children. The fact that only 15% of school teachers are satisfied with their present occupation and that 26% of the fourth grade students of an eminent grade school in Seoul has experienced runaway at one time or another indicate the necessity and urgency of hiring school social workers. Suggested treatment measures are : a. To install a temporary protection center for runaway children in every province and city. Long term protection in the facility as practiced by the Seoul City Children Protection Center negatively influences the children and makes them vulnerable to the institutional vice. b. Qualified professional staff should be assigned to the institution in order to furnish professional service. Presently the atmosphere of the institution is overly oppressive with vice prevailing among the children and little intimacy and confidence between children and staff. c. The facility should be renovated to provide sanitary and uncrowded living condition for the children.
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