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指導者의 指導性 形態 및 關聯된 變因에 관한 硏究

Title
指導者의 指導性 形態 및 關聯된 變因에 관한 硏究
Authors
康順華
Issue Date
1976
Department/Major
대학원 교육심리학과
Keywords
지도자지도성교육심리학
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
The purpose of this research is to contribute to unbringing better quality of high school leaders who are expected to lead our country in the near future. So this present paper is an attempt to investigate the relation between their leadership style and related variables. The objectives treated in this study are as follows : 1. To look into social and psychological characteristics of high school leader : 1) To research on the actual conditions of their history : their birth order, socioeconomic status of their family, the present condition of their religion and the past and present experience of their group activities. 2) To look into their intellectual traits : intellectual ability, academic achievements and the relation between them. 2. To determine their leadership style and the relation between leadership style and related variables of their traits : 1) To compare the distinction of sex and the leadership style. 2) To compare their birth order and the leadership style. 3) To analyze the correlation between the personality factors and the leadership style. 3. To look into relation between the leadership style and related environmental variables : 1) To analyze the relation between their religion and the leadership style. 2) To look into relation between the role experience as a leader in group activities and the leadership style. 3) To make clear the relation between the way they were elected and their leadership style. 4) To analyze the correlation between their family environmental factors and their leadership style. For these objectives, this study used three instruments of investigation which consist of Generalized Personality Diagnosis Test, Questionnaire about Chracteristic of Leaders and parent Behavior Rating Scale. As population sample, 115 class leaders in the 2nd grade at senior high school in Seoul were selected. The findings of the study are as follows : 1. In the aspect of social and psychological characteristics : 1) The birth order of the leaders is various and socioeconomic status of their families belongs to somewhat high level. Half of them don't have religion and the rest of them are Christians or Catholics while there are a few Buddhists. They are very active in their group activities and most of them have been taking the roles of managerial staffs in their group activities. 2) Their intellectual ability is higher than average (mostly above IQ 121), and academic achievements are also good. It can be said that there is positive correlation between these two factors. 2. In the aspect of the relation between the leadership style and related variables of their traits : 1) There is no significant relation between distinction of sex and the leadership style. 2) There is no relation between the birth order and leadership style. 3) There is some significant correlation between the personality factors and their leadership style. In the case of the boy leaders, the personality factors which have significant correlation with the leadership style are as follows : Emotional Stability (rt=-.39, P<.01), Sociability (rt=-.60, p<.01), Responsibility (rt=-.28, p<.05), Impulsiveness (rt=+.29, P<.05), Superiority(rt=-.28, P<.05). But in the case of the girl leaders, there is no significant correlation between the leadership style and the personality factors. On the whole, however, the sociability and responsibility of the leaders have significant correlation with leadership style. 3. In the aspect of the relation between leadership style and environmental variables : 1) There is no significant relation between religion and the leadership style. 2) There is significant correlation between the role experience of leaders and the leadership style. 3) There is no significant relation between the way they were elected and the leadership style. 4) There are some significant correlation between the family environmental factors and the leadership style. In the case of the boy leaders, there is significant correlation (rt=-.47, P<.01) between the acceptance or child and the leader ship style. But in the case of the girl leaders, there is no significant correlation between the family environmental factors and the leadership style. On the whole, however, it can be found out that the child-centeredness, attitudes toward explanation and acceptance of the child have significant correlation with leadership style.;本 硏究는 가까운 將來에 우리나라를 이끌어 나갈 靑少年들 中 高等學校 指導者들을 中心으로 그들의 指導性 形態를 알아 보고 이에 關聯된 그들의 社會心理的 特性 및 諸 變因間의 關係를 살펴 봄으로써 보다 나은 指導者의 育成을 위한 기틀을 마련코자 한 硏究이다. 本 硏究에서 糾明하고자 한 問題는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 現在 高等學校 指導者들의 社會心理的 特性을 살펴보기 위해 (1) 指導者들의 身上에 關한 事項으로 出生順·家庭의 社會·經濟的 地位 宗敎實態 및 團體活動의 諸般 狀況으로 過去·現在 活動經驗, 活動內容 및 職責 등을 살펴보았고 (2) 指導者들의 知的 特性으로 知能, 學業成績 및 그들간의 關係를 살펴 보았다. 둘째, 指導者들의 指導性 形態와 이에 關聯되는 特性과의 關係를 살펴 보았다. (1) 性別과 指導性 形態間에 有意味한 關係가 있는가? (2) 出生順과 指導性 形態間에 有意味한 關係가 있는가? (3) 各 性格 要因과 指導性 形態間에 有意味한 相關關係가 있는가? 세째, 環境과의 相互 作用 面에서 본 指導性 形態와의 關係를 살펴보았다. (1) 宗敎와 指導性 形態間에는 關係가 있는가? (2) 集團生活經驗 與否와 指導性 形態間에는 差異가 있는가? (3) 指導者로 選出된 方法과 指導性 形態間에는 差異가 있는가? (4) 家庭環境 變因에 따른 指導性 形態間에 相關關係가 있는가? 이를 위해 本 硏究에서는 標準化 性格診斷檢査, 指導者의 特性에 關한 調査, 家庭環境診斷 尺度등 3가지의 道具를 使用하였으며 그 硏究 對象으로는 서울市內에 있는 13個 男·女 高等學校 2學年 班長들 115名을 選定하였다. 그 結果는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 指導者들은 그들의 社會心理的인 特性面에서, 出生順位는 多樣한 것으로 나타났으며, 家庭의 社會·經濟的 地位는 대체로 높은 水準에 있고, 宗敎生活은 대체로 하지 않으나 宗敎가 있는 경우에는 基督敎·카톨릭 등이 주로 많았으며 過去·現在 集團活動들은 活潑한 편이고 그 職責들은 대부분 幹部職에 속하고 있음을 알 수 있었다. 指導者들의 知能은 대체로 優秀한 편이고 (IQ 121以上), 學業成績도 優秀한 편에 속하였고 이로서 兩者에 正的相關이 있음을 볼 수 있었다. 둘째, 指導性 形態와 關聯된 特性 變因間의 關係는 다음과 같다. (1) 男·女의 性 差異에 따른 民主形 權威形의 指導性에는 유의미한 差異가 없었다. (2) 長者·中間者·未者 등과 같은 出生順位와 指導性間에도 意味있는 差異가 없었다. (3) 性格變因과 指導性 形態間의 相關關係에서는 男學生 指導者들에게서 安定性(rt=-39, p<0.01), 社會性(rt=-609, p<0.01), 責任性(rt=-28, p<0.05), 衝動性(rt=+29, p<0.05), 優越性(rt=-28, p<0.05)등의 要因들에서 각각의 두 變因間에 有意味한 相關關係가 있음이 밝혀졌으며, 한편 女學生 指導者들에게서는 두 指導性과 性格要因間에 有意味한 相關關係가 없음을 알 수 있었다. 그러므로 全體的인 指導者들의 두 變因間의 相關關係는 社會性·責任性 두 要因에 있어 有意味한 相關임이 나타났으므로 權威的인 傾向의 指導者들이 社會性과 責任性이 높음을 알 수 있었다. 세째, 環境과의 相互作用面에서 본 指導性과의 關係 (1) 宗敎生活과 指導性 形態間에는 有意味한 相關이 없었다. (2) 過去 集團活動中 幹部職의 經驗과 指導性 形態間에는 有意味한 差異가 있어 過去에 幹部職 經驗이 많은 指導者일수록 民主形의 指導性을 가진 것으로 밝혀졌다. (3) 直接選擧·指名·敎師候補選定後 選擧등과 같은 指導者 選出方法에 따른 指導性 形態에는 아무런 差異가 없음을 알 수 있었다. (4) 家庭環境要因과 指導性 形態間의 相關關係에서는 男學生 指導者들의 경우에 子女에 대한 認定 要因이 指導性 形態와 有意味한 相關關係가 있는 것으로 나타났고, 女學生들 경우에는 有意味한 相關을 볼 수 없었으므로 全體的 指導者들의 두 變因間에 相關關係는 子女中心性, 指示의 强制性, 子女에 대한 認定要因 등에서 意味있는 相關關係를 볼 수 있었다. 이와 같은 結果에 의해 指導者들의 指導性 形態는 主로 性格 特性과 家庭環境 그리고 集團活動經驗 등의 環境要因間의 相互作用에 의해 形成되어 지는 것으로 結論지을 수 있다.
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