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彫刻作品에 表現된 Eroticism

彫刻作品에 表現된 Eroticism
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대학원 조소과
이화여자대학교 대학원
Eroticism has never been seperated from man's life since he appeared on this earth. Thus, eroticism is the most essential thing to humankind, and an artistic expression is the manifestation of his deepest instinctive desire. This study is to consider the expressional methods and formative characteristics of eroticism in sculpture by the times mainly on the history of western fine arts. The concern of this study is in the definition of those expressional methods and formative characteristics of eroticism, which has been expressed in the sculptural works from prehistory to the present, through an analysis of it. As for the subject of this study, the theories of psychoanalysis, art sociology and the history of art have been investigated as the theoretical background of eroticism, and the expressional methods and formative characteristics of eroticism have been analyzed by the times in the three chapter. The method of this study has been exercised mainly through references and periodicals. To analyze actual sculptures, I have sampled intentionally 84 works from prehistory to the present as the object of this study in which expressional methods and for mative characteristics are strongly shown. And the consequences can be summarized as follows; First, although there are certain lusts and erotic feelings in the prehistoricacal and primitive sculptures, the results come out purely from coincidence. The ultimate aim of making a sculpture in those times lied in the prayer for human being's prolificacy to God. By this reason, the sexual organs in sculpture were exaggerated as large to symbolize the prolificacy, while the other parts were reduced in size or omitted to be simplified into the geometrical structure of circular form. Second, in ancient Greece and rome, human body itself was understood with the concept of moderation based on golden ratio, and as to the expressional method, realistic concrete forms were manufactured based upon the anatomy. 1) Establishment of ideal human form based upon the proportion of the humanbody such as the sevel-head figure established by Polycletos and eight-head figure by Lisyppos, and the proportional standards of each fart of human body. 2) The concept of three-dimension with time and space was introduced to the sculpture through the sense of movement in contrast with the synthesis of twodimensional elements catched only at one point of time, which was dominant tendency of sculpture in the earlier period of that times. Third, since the Middle Age had a negative view upon the flesh due to the christian influence, all sexual behaviors except self-controlled one for breeding were regarded as guilt. For this reason, most sculptures of Middle Age take rather shameful forms as if the represent those quilty crimes committed through sensual pleasures. 1) Simplification of form due to the immaturity of expressional techniques. 2) Formulization and symbolization of object for the purpose of interpreting the Bible. 3) Planess of shape for interpreting one-side quality of the sculptures as the decorating relief of architecture. Fourth, Renaissance, with its restoration of humanity and redisocvery of the naked beauty of man of the ancient times that was rejected in the Middle Age, made it possible for sculptors to represent human body into more positive forms that showed not only ideal beauty, but also all kinds of feelings of man. And now the objects of sculpture were actual human beings not those gods from ancient myths. 1) Group statuss of man and woman or woman figures, which represented directly the love between man and woman, were increased as opposed to the Greek and Roman sculptures that represented eroticism indirectly. 2) Pictorial elements like light, cloud and water were expressed as the background of a work. Fifth, contemporary sculptures take moor bold and diversified forms since the opening of sex. As for the formal aspect, it ranges from direct concrete ones-i.e., nude, that of erotic expression of live, sexual relationship and metaphor of genital organs-to abstract ones produced through technical composition and transfiguration. And the range of eroticism. itself has been narrowed to express sexuality directly compared to those of the past included every emotions. 1) Simplification and transformation of form to deliver strong images of objects rather than the structural form. 2) Symbolization of man and woman shapes into certain concave adn convex forms ( ) 3) Symbolization of sexual organs with hollow space adn sharply-edged instruments. 4) Merchandising and using sex a6 a tool due to the material civilization.;인류가 존재해온 이래로 Eroticism은 인간의 삶과 분리되었던 적이 없다. 그러므로 Eroticism은 인간의 가장 本然의 것이며 또 예술적 표현은 인간의 가장 깊숙한 본능적 欲求의 表明이다. 本 硏究는 서양 미술사를 중심으로 조각 작품에 표현된 Eroticism의 時代的 表現 方法과 造形的 特性을 考察하고자 한다. 本 硏究의 目的은 선사시대로부터 현대에 이르기까지 조각 작품에 표현된 Eroticism의 分析을 통하여 그 表現 方法과 造形的 特性을 糾明하는데 있다. 本 硏究의 內容은 서양 미술사를 중심으로 先史에서 現代에 이르기까지 彫刻 作品에 表現된 Eroticism을 分析하기 위하여 理論的 背景에서는 精神分析學的 側面·藝術社會學的 側面·美術史를 통해서 본 Eroticism을 Ⅲ장에서는 彫刻 作品에 표현된 Eroticism의 時代別 表現 方法과 造形的 特性을 作品을 통하여 分析하였다. 本 硏究의 方法은 文獻的 資料를 통하여 理論的 背景을 연구하였다. 分析作品은 先史에서 現代에 이르기까지 Eroticism이 表現된 彫刻作品 84點을 有意標準하여 時代別 表現 方法과 造形的 特性을 分析하였다. 硏究의 結果를 要約하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 선사·원시시대에는 다소 情欲的이거나 erotic한 呼訴力을 지녔다 할지라도 순전히 偶然에 의한 것이었으며, 궁극적인 목적은 多産을 비는 呪術的 意味에서 만들어 졌다. 이에 多産에 적합한 生殖器 部分을 强調하고, 그외의 부분은 縮小, 省略하여 원형의 기하학적 구조로 單純化 시키고 있다. 둘째, Greece· Roma인들은 인체를 황금비례에 입각한 中庸의 槪念으로 이해하고 있으며,표현 방법에 있어서도 인체해부학에 입각한 사실적인 구상 형식을 취하고 있다. ① Polycletos가 제정한 7등신과 Lisyppos의 8등신과 같은 인체비례와 신체 각부위의 표준형에 입각한 이상적인 인간상 확립. ② 초기 지배적이었던 오직 한시점에서의 포착 가능한 2차원의 종합으로부터 운동감을 통해 시간과 배경이라는 3차원의 개념을 작품속에 도입 셋째, 中世는 基督敎的 世界觀으로 인하여 肉體에 대한 否定的 態度는 種族繁殖을 위한 절제된 性行爲만을 허용하고 있으며, 작품들은 인간이 육체의 快樂을 통해 저지른 罪를 대면이라도 하듯 모두 부끄러운 모습으로 표현되고 있다. ① 표현 기술의 미숙으로 인한 單純化 ② 聖書解說을 위한 圖像化와 象徵化 ③ 건축을 장식하는 부조로 한면만을 설명해 주는 平面性 넷째, Renaissance는 中世 神中心으로부터 人間 中心으로의 전환을 맞이하여 인간의 육체를 神의 모습이 아닌 인간의 모습으로 감정의 표현까지를 포함한 보다 적극적인 모습으로 표현하고 있다. ① Greece·Roma가 남성상 위주의 암시적인 방법에 의해 Eroticism을 표현했다면, Renaissance는 직접적인 사랑을 표현한 남여 군상과 여성상이 증가 하였다. ② 빛, 구름, 물과 같은 회화적인 요소가 작품의 배경으로 표현되고 있다. 다섯째, 현대는 性의 開放化로 形式面에 있어서는 직설적인 具象形式 - nude, 남여 사랑의 표현, 性關係 또는 性器의 metaphor - 으로 부터 구성의 기교와 변용에 의한 抽象論 方法에 이르기까지 다양한 모습으로 보여지고 있다. ① 구조적인 형태에서 보다도 오히려 강한 image 전달을 위한 형태의 單純化와 變形 ② 요철형(凹·凸)에 의한 男女의 記號化 ③ 패인 공간과 끝이 날카로운 道具에 의한 性器의 象徵化 ④ 物質文明에 의한 性의 商品化와 道具化
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