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Jean George Noverre에 관한 연구

Jean George Noverre에 관한 연구
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대학원 무용학과
Jean George Noverre무용발레무용가안무가프랑스발레Noverre, Jean Georges
이화여자대학교 대학원
Ballet 역사상 위대한 개혁가인 Jean George Noverre는 舞踊家요 동시에 按舞家로서 불란서 Ballet뿐만 아니라 오늘날에 이르기까지 많은 영향을 주고 있으며 "Ballet의 아버지"라는 칭호를 받고 있다. Noverre는 1927年 4月 24日에 파리에서 出生했고 幼年時에 Louis Dupre´ 에게 敎育을 받은후 16세에 Paris Opera의 Comique 座에서 데뷰했다. 그후 필생의 대작의 하나로 지목되는 "Le^s Fetes Chinoise"를 按舞함으로써 일약 유명해 졌는데 그는 事實主義와 Ballet D'action을 그의 作風의 信條로 삼고 있었다. 그는 당시 自然主義 思想家들로 부터 많은 讚辭를 받았으며 英國무대의 가장 극적인 예술가인 David Garrik은 그를 가르켜 "舞踊의 Shakespeare "라고 까지 격찬하였다. 그後 Garrick으로 부터 Pantomine에 대한 理論的인 영향을 받아 후일 Ballet D'action의 理論을 정립시키는데 결정적인 밑바탕이 되었으며 1760年에 출판한 그의 著書 「Letters Sur la Danse et les Ballet」를 저술하는 바탕을 얻었던 것이다. Noverre의 生涯는 어떤 意味에서는 파란만장의 실의와 비극속에서의 生涯라고도 할 수 있겠다. 그의 급진적이고 타협을 모르는 개혁주의 때문에 그의 生活은 결코 행복한 것은 못되었던듯 하다. 그는 한곳에 머무르는 性質이 되지 못하여 구라파 各地의 首都를 轉轉하였다고 한다. 그가 가장 오래 머무른 곳은 Suttgart인데 8年間 이곳에 머무른 그는 Ballet master와 按舞家로서 구라파 各地의 舞踊家를 맞아 指導했다. Noverre가 그의 著書 "Letters Sur la Danse et les Ballet" 에서 提示한 舞編에 對한 法則, 敎訓등은 오늘날까지 모든 按舞家, 舞踊家의 귀감이 되고 있으며 그는 또한 人體의 Piroutte, Elevation, Glissarde가 어느정도까지 가능한가에 대해 깊이 硏究 하였다. 本 論文에서는 이와같이 발레가 藝術로서 그 基礎를 다져 발전해 가는 時期인 18세기 중엽 연극무용의 불합리를 지적하고 개혁에 의한 강력한 수정을 주장한 Noverre의 業績과 예술思想을 硏究對象으로 삼았다. 그는 한낱 宮中오락물로서 그 保護家와 後援者를 위해서만 上演되었던 겉만 화려하던 Ballet를 文化的으로 그리고 知的으로 한층 높은 위치에 이르게한 사람이었으며, 그는 Ballet가 예술적 성숙기에로 向하는데 하나의 里程標와 같은 功績을 남겼음에는 의심할 여지가 없다고 할 수 있겠다.;Jean George Noverre, the greatest reformer in the history of ballet, was not only a dancer, but also a choreographer. He has still effected the present times as well as French ballet, and been called" the father of ballet". Noverre was born in Paris on April 24, 1727, and in his childhood, he had been though by Louis Dupre, and made his debut on Comique. After that, he undertook the choreography of "Les Fete Chinose", one of his great masterwork and leaped suddenly into fame. He kept his creed with realism and ballet daction. These were not his owm creations, and already emphasized in the dance of 17th century, However, he added his personality to these, and made new works. The realism, as he said, has obviously been expressed on his saying, "imitate the nature when you want to imitate someting". He, at that times, was much praised by naturalists and David Garrick praised him highly as the Shakespeare of dance. Subsequently, Noverre was influenced theoritically about pantomime by Garrick and formulated important foundations to establish the theory of ballet daction, it gave the basis to author "the Letters sur la Dance et sur les baller", published on 1768. Noverre's life, in certain respect, was said to be the life with despairs and tragedies. His life seemed to be unhappy. We think this resulted from his radical and intrasigent thought of reformation. He didn't stay long in a place and wandered several capital cities in Europe. The place where he had stared for the longest period is Stuttgart. He, who had been it for 8 years, thought the dancers of several European countries as a ballet master and choreographer. The rules and instructions pertaining to dance, suggested in the "letters sur la danse at sur les ballet" Noverre's book, set examples to the present choreographers and dancers. He also studied how much piroutte, elevation and glissrde of the body are possible. This study has been attempted to observe the Noverre's achievements and thought of arts that he suggested the irrationality of play dancing and strongly insisted on the reformation in the middle of the 18th century when the ballet developed to an art with firm foundations. He was the man who made the ballet heightend culturally and intellecturally that was Played for the suppoters as a palaceable amusements. He continuosly pursued new things not only in the thought of reformation, but also in his ideal, and had the defaults of the romanticism in his method. However, we have no doubt that he accomplished the great achievements like a milestne required in the improvement of ballet into the artistic maturity.
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