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韓國 高等敎育 政策의 史的 考察

韓國 高等敎育 政策의 史的 考察
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(A) Historical study of education policies in Korea
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교육대학원 교육학전공교육행정분야
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
오늘날 우리의 高等敎育을 再吟味해 보고 앞날의 우리 歷史를 創造하는 課業에 기여할 수 있는 態勢를 갖추기 위하여 지난날의 高等敎育政策을 檢討해 보는 것은 意義 있는 일이라 생각되므로, 지난 35年間 韓國高等敎育政策의 變遷過程을 定礎期, 整備期, 發展期로 구분하여 그 特徵을 分析 整理하므로서 80年代의 高等敎育 政策 樹立을 위한 專門的인 識見을 넓히고 基礎的인 자료를 마련하고자 하는데 본 硏究의 目的이 있다. 대학 기초를 다져야 했던 定礎期로 부터 高等敎育의 開放的 放任政策에 따하 급격하게 大學이 量的으로 膨脹하였다. 그 원인으로는 土地改革의 영향과 大學觀의 變化, 大學生 徵集保留, 就職難의 극심한 影響으로 分析하였다. 整備期에 들어서면서 高等敎育의 統制政策에 따라 大學의 量的膨脹에 대한 제동을 가하게 되었으며 大學整備의 失敗는 大學敎育의 質的向上이 學生定員의 減縮과 國家權力에 의한 統制만으로는 이룩될 수 없다는 事美을 분명하게 했고 大學整備의 중요한 관건은 대학에 대한 財政的인 지원과 長期的이고 綜合的인 計劃에 의해야 한다는 敎訓을 남겼다. 發展期에 들어서서 統制와 助成을 병행시키면서 高等敎育의 質的 向上을 위한 改革을 단행하는 한편 高等敎育에 대한 計劃을 强化하려는데 주안점을 두었다고 볼 수 있다. 70年代의 高等敎育政策은 大學定員의 漸進的인 확충, 實驗大學의 推進, 特性化大學推進, 大學院業績評價, 大學業的評價, 夜間大學의 制度的 改善, 大學入學豫備考査의 持續的實施, 大學의 理念과 機能의 정립을 위한 계속적인 노력증대 等이라고 할 수 있다. 그동안 韓國의 高等敎育은 量的인 側面에서는 急成長해 왔으나 質的인 面에서는 未洽하였다. 大學이 앞날에 펼쳐질 社會에 適應하기도 하며 또 나아가서는 國家發展을 能動的으로 이끌고 나가기 위해서는 大學敎育의 質的發展은 우리나라를 고도의 文化國家로 形成하기 위해서도 시급히 指向되어야 할 課題이다. 그러므로 문교행정당국이나 대학경영당국자들이 대학에 대한 지원을 강화하고, 교수의 처우개선, 학생의 복지증진에 힘을 기울여야 할 것이며, 대학발전을 위한 기획역량을 강화하고 대학발전의 전략을 세워야 할 것이다. 高等敎育政策에 관한 몇가지 提言을 하면 첫째로 오늘날 문교행정당국이 구상하고 있는 高等敎育에 관한 改革案은 계속적인 硏究와 評價를 토대로 하여 신중히 추진되어야 하고 둘째 高等敎育部門을 敎育의 우선순위로 두어야 하며 세째, 高等敎育에 관한 計劃 硏究 評價體制의 확립을 서둘러야 할 것이고 네째 대학원교육의 획기적 개선을 위한 政策이 시급히 요청되고 있으며 다섯째 大學管理體制의 改革과 學事行政要員에 대한 人力의 專門化를 요하게 되었고 끝으로 改革프로그램의 成敗가 달린 敎育財政의 計劃的인 開發에 力點을 두어야 할 것이다.;It is important for us to examine the higher education policies of the past in order to gain a new understanding of higher education in our country as a whole and so that lessons of history can be utilized in future developments. Through researching the policies of the past thirty-five we can formulate the basic material upon which the particular period of the 1980s can be analyzed as a stage in the evolutionary course of Korean higher educational policy. From the initial phase, when higher education had to be consolidated under one university, the number of higher learning institutions grew quite suddenly in a laissez-faire fashion. The results of this study show that this abrupt increase came about as a result of land reform, a change in attitudes toward universities, student deferment for military conscription, and a severe scarcity of employment. Next came the settlement stage, when a control policy attempted to put brakes on the quantitative expansion. During this period the government directly controlled the establishment of new universities but failed to maintain order in the existing institutions, showing that qualitative improvement cannot be accomplished solely by government regulation and reduction of university capacities. The outcome of this period demonstrated that the key to quality higher education is financial support for universities and long-range, comprehensive plans for their development. During the development stage, the government both controlled and supported higher education. Innovative plans were carried out to improve higher education qualitatively, while on the other hand, emphasis was on strengthening the plans themselves. Policies of the seventies aimed at gradual expansion of university capacity, propulsion of the experimental but stable university accreditation of courses at the under graduate and graduate levels, re-establishment of evening courses, recognition of preliminary examination results as valid for a period of time, and a continuous effort to put the university's establishment on an ideological basis. Whether innovation at the college level succeeds or fails depends on various factors such as the rigidity or informality of a system. How the academic affairs of a university are managed, self control, responsiveness, and awareness of current needs are all factors to be considered in this regard. Of course, the success or failure of innovation depends heavily. on the quality of the faculty, instructional materials available, the physical plant, management a homework library, improvement in methods of instruction, and availability of instructional assistance. The higher education system of Korea grew interms of quantity but was short on quality instruction. A university must be prepared to fit a society of the future and to lead in the development of a nation. Proper development of a higher education system is a necessary accomplishment toward the further development of a highly cultured nation. Therefore the university administration will have to strengthen their support of students, welfare and establish strategies for more development of higher education. The first recommendations to come out of this study are to reform higher education plans, plan for current administration needs, and to continue research in the area of accreditation. Secondly, the higher education department must place highest emphasis on the instructional aspects of the university. Thirdly, the department must quickly establish valid plans and research projects. Fourthly, a complete change of policy must be adopted toward graduate studies. Fifthly, university management must be reformed with a spiral of power around the prospective graduate. Finally we must make definite plans concerning educational finance, according to the success of the reformed program.
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