View : 159 Download: 0

韓國旣婚女性의 子女에 대한 價値知覺의 變化

Title
韓國旣婚女性의 子女에 대한 價値知覺의 變化
Other Titles
CHANGING PERCEPTIONS OF VALUE OF CHILDREN
Authors
李善姬.
Issue Date
1978
Department/Major
대학원 교육심리학과
Keywords
한국기혼여성자녀가치지각
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
本 硏究는 父母가 子女에게 賦與하고 있는 價値知覺이 어떻게 形成·變化되어 가는가를 硏究하는데 그 目的이 있다. 本 硏究에서 다루고 있는 問題는 다음과 같다. 1. 父母가 子女에게 대해 부여하고 있는 一般的 子女價値는 무엇이며, 이러한 知覺은 生活週期 變因에 따라 어떻게 變化되어 가는가? 2. 父母가 子女를 願하는 理由와 願하지 않는 理由는 生活週期 變因에 의해 어떻게 變化되어 가는가? 3. 父母가 現存 子女數에 대해 滿足하고 있는가의 여부에 따라 子女 價値知覺은 어떻게 달라지는가? 4. 子女를 한명만 둔다는것에 대한 知覺은 生活週期 變因에 따라 어떠한 차이를 나타내는가? 위의 問題를 究明하기 위해 본 연구에서는 階層的 多段階 無選標集方法(Stratified multistage random sampling)을 사용하여 17세에서 39세까지의 婦人 1,565명을 硏究對象으로 選定하였다. 이때 사용된 도구는 1976년 韓國行動科學硏究所에서 실시한 '父母의 子女觀 硏究'의 질문지로서 본 연구를 위해 추출된 變因은 모두 14개였다. 應答者들이 子女에 대한 價値를 나타내는 應答을 중심으로 SPSS(Statistical Package for Social Sciences) 컴퓨터 프로그램을 사용하여 分析을 하였다. 이때 사용된 下位프로그램은 重多回婦分析(Multfple Regression Analysis), 單純相關分析(Pearson Correlation) 그리고 百分率(Crosstabulation)등을 사용하였다. 獨立變因과 縱屬變因과의 相關정도를 알려주는 카이자승(x²)과 유관계수(C)도 산출되었다. 본 분석에서 밝혀진 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 父母가 가진 現存 子女數가 늘어남에 따라 予女의 利點으로 높게 가치를 부여하고 있던 가치로서 자녀가 있으면 집안이 화기애애해지고 행복해 진다. 자녀가 있으면 夫婦關係가 원만해 진다와 같은 情意的 滿足價値 및 結束價値는 점차 지각율이 약화되는 현상을 나타낸다. 반면에 자녀가 자라는 것을 보는 喜悅感을 느낄 수 있다. 자녀는 家系繼承을 위해 필요하다등의 情緖的 滿足價値와 子女의 道具的 價値는 점차 부모에게 크게 부각되고 있음을 알 수 있다. 2. 子女의 不利點에 대한 知覺에 變化를 나타내는 가치로는 敎育費 負擔을 포함한 經濟的 負擔과 子女의 訓育念慮, 子女의 欲求充足 不能感등의 負擔이 높게 지각되어 가는 경향을 보이는 반면 子女로 인한 時間制約과 같은 活動制約 負擔은 점차 그 지각율이 낮아지는 것으로 나타난다. 3. 부모의 年令에 따른 子女의 利點 知覺의 變化로서, 子女의 發達을 보고 느끼는 喜悅感의 情緖的 滿足感과 家係繼承, 子女에 대한 老後依持와 같은 자녀의 道具的 屬性을 강조하는 現實的인 자녀의 잇점들이 부인의 연령이 증가함에 따라 높게 지각되고 있다. 反面에 자녀가 있으면 권태롭지 않게 된다, 집안이 재미있게 된다, 夫婦關係가 원만해 진다등의 가치는 지각율이 약화됨을 볼 수 있다. 4. 자녀의 불릿점으로서는 子女의 父母에 대한 不順從, 子女欲求充足을 제대로 해줄수 없다등의 情緖的 負擔과 經濟的 負擔이 父母의 年令이 증가함에 따라 현저하게 지각율의 상승을 나타내고, 子女가 있으면 夫婦生活에 制約을 받는다. 生活의 拘束을 느낀다와 같은 負擔과 子女事故나 疾病에 대한 염려등은 반대로 지각이 둔화되어 가고 있다. 5. 응답자의 個人背景으로서 敎育水準을 統制했을때 이에대한 價値知覺의 變化는 敎育水準이 낮고 子女數가 많을수록 現實的 子女價値, 一家系繼承, 老後依持의 가치를 重視하는 傾向을 보이고, 敎育水準이 높고 子女數가 적을수록 子女의 情緖的 滿足價値를 크게 評價하고 있는것으로 나타난다. 子女의 不利點知覺은 敎育水準이 낮고 子女數가 많을수록 子女의 不順從등 訓育負擔 높게 評價하고 있으며 敎育水準이 높은 응답자들중에서는 子女數가 늘어날수록 전반적인 子女의 不利點 知覺이 증가하고 있다. 6. 應答者의 個人背景으로서 地域變因을 統制했을때 이에 대한 價値知覺의 變化는 農村에 거주하며 子女數가 많아질수록 家系繼承, 老後依持등의 現實的인 子女價値를, 都市居住者이며 子女를 적게가진 父母일수록 전체적으로 子女의 利點에 대한 知覺이 낮아짐을 볼 수 있다. 子女의 不利點 知覺은 農村地域의 婦人들은 子女數가 증가할수록 子女와 訓育問題 및 經濟的인 문제에 대한 負擔率이 높아지고 都市地域 應答者들은 子女數가 많아질수록 子女訓育問題에 대한 不利點의 지각이 상승되고 있다. 本硏究는 子女를 知覺의 對象으로 간주하고 子女를 갖게되는 動機에 대한 知覺의 變化를 집중적으로 다루었다는 면에서 그 意義를 찾을수 있으나 調査硏究가 가지고 있는 本質的인 弱點은 극복하지 못하였으며 보다 深層的인 硏究의 必要性을 부각시켰다. 本硏究는 動機, 知覺에 관한 硏究의 理論的 意義이외에도 本硏究의 結果는 人口政策, 특히 情報·敎育·컴뮤니케이션 戰略에 활용될 수 있을 것이다.;Ⅰ. Problems The purpose of the present study was to investigate how the values of children the parents attach to children change over time. It was assumed that the parents attach certain values to having children and these values tend to change as a function of life cycle of the parents. The life cycle in this study includes such variables as the age of the parents, the number of living children, and sex composition of children. Four problems were posed for the study : (1) What are the general values the parents attach to children and how the perceptions of these values change as a function of life cycle? (2) How do the reasons for wanting and not wanting children change over time as a function of life cycle? (3) How do the perceptions of value of children change depending upon the degree of satisfactions with the living children? (4) How do the perceptions of having only child change over time as a function of life cycle? Ⅱ. Methods A total of 1,565 married women in the age of 17-39 were interviewed by a questionnaire designed for the "Value of the Children" project conducted in January 1976 in eight countries in Asia. The sample was selected by the stratified multistage random sampling design. Fourteen questions were selected for the present study from the original questionnaire which included approximately 100 questions. The format of the questions were both open-ended and structured. The data collected through field survey were subjected to computer analysis using SPSS(Statistical Package for Social Sciences) installed at KIST(Korean Institute for Science and Technology). Subprograms used in the data processing included multiple regression analysis, simple correlation analysis, and crosstabulation. X² and contingency coefficients were also calculated to test the levels of significance of the relationships between independent and dependent variables. Ⅲ. Results The following paragraphs summarize the results of the present study. 1. As the number of children increased, emotional satisfaction of children(e.g. children provide happiness for the family) and conjugal ties(e.g. children forge a close wife-husband relation) as advantages of children tended to weaken, whereas other aspects of emotional satisfaction of children(e.g. enjoyment in watching children grow) and instrumental value(e.g. to carry on the family line) tended to be gradually perceived as advantages of children. 2. As the number of children increased, perceptions of financial costs including cost of children's education, difficulty to discipline children and difficulty to satisfy children's present wants tended to stood out whereas perceptions of restrictions on time, social life and personal wants tended to weaken. 3. As the age of the women increased, advantages of emotional satisfaction of children(e.g. enjoyment of watching children grow) and instrumental value(e.g. help, emotional security in old age and carry on the family line) were etrenthening, but happiness, love, companionship, avoidance of boredom, play, fun with children and conjugal ties tended to weaken gradually. 4. As the age of the women increased, they became concerned about emotional strain such as difficulty to displine children, concern about satisfying children's present wants, and financial costs of raising children. But disadvantages of restrictions on life, having less time for spouse interactions, worries over sickness, safety, accident of children tended to weaken gradually. The analysis has also been conducted for subsets of data, controlling educational level and residential area of respondents. The results are as follows : 5. As the number of children increased, the women with lower educational attainment tended to emphasize the instrumental value of children(e.g. carry on the family line and security in old age), while the women of higher educational level emphasized the emotional satisfactions derived from having children. As for the disadvantages of children, as the number of children increased, the wives of lower educational level were concerned about displining children and emotional strain. 6. When the residential areas of the respondents were controlled, advantages of family lineage and security in old age were positively related with the number of children for the rural respondents. But, for the urban respondents, most of the general advantages of having children were a diminishing function of number of children. Disadvantages of financial burden and concern about displining children tended to be a strong concern to the rural respondents, but to the urban respondents, disadvantage of emotional strain(e.g. worries about children) tended to emerge strongly as the number of children increased. 7. Although it was initially assumed that the sex composition of children would also have value differentials among subgroups, it was found that there were no distinguishable differentials except that the values of old age security, continuation of family line, and pride in raising children, which the wives with all boys attached to children, were an increasing function of the number of boys, whereas the values of enjoyment in watching children grow, avoidance of boredom, and good spouse relation, which the wives with all girls attached to children, were a decreasing function of the number of girls. As for disadvantages of children, difficulty to discipline children was perceived by the all-bay mothers as increasing as the number of boys increased while restriction on time and worries over children were perceived as decreasing as the number of boys increased. For the all-girl mothers, defiance to the parents and worries over children's future were perceived as increasing as the number of girls increased, while general worries over children was perceived as decreasing as the number of girls increased. Perhaps, the significance of the present study would be the fact that perceptions about children are changing as a function of time, particularly the life cycle variables. But this study could not overcome the intrinsic weaknesses inherent in survey method; hence more intensive study would be needed for the related studies in the future. The empirical findings of this study may be relevant to policy making in population, especially in developing strategies for information, education, and communication program.
Fulltext
Show the fulltext
Appears in Collections:
일반대학원 > 심리학과 > Theses_Master
Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.
Export
RIS (EndNote)
XLS (Excel)
XML


qrcode

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

BROWSE