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韓國社會保險制度의 實態硏究

韓國社會保險制度의 實態硏究
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대학원 사회사업학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
우리나라의 社會保障은 社會保險, 公的扶助 그리고 기타 관련 社會福祉의 體系를 이루고 있다. 이중에서 社會保險은 가장 중요한 位置를 차지하고 있다. 1960年代에 經濟開發政策 우선의 산업화가 추진되어 왔다. 최근에 이르러 政府는 第4次 經濟開發計劃에 있어서 經濟社會間의 均衡된 發展을 위하여 노력하고 있다. 이에따라 政府는 社會保險 특히 1977年 實施된 醫療保險을 적극 추진하고 있다. 本 論文은 再分配機能의 관점에서 社會保險의 實態를 分析하는 것을 目的으로 한다. 第2章에서는 社會保障의 槪念, 社會保障과 國民經濟의 關係 그리고 社會保障과 再分配의 관계가 다루어지며 社會保險의 槪念과 性格이 고찰되었다. 第3章에서는 우리나라 社會保險制度의 實態를 分析함에 있어서 우선 그 發展過程을 개괄하였다. 分析은 現在 實施되고 있는 社會保險을 年金保險, 醫療保險 그리고 産災保險의 카테고리로 分類하였다. 이 영역에 의하여 社會保險法, 適用對象, 財政調達 그리고 結與體制의 4側面에서 分析하였다. 第4章에서는 硏究結果에 근거하여 社會保險制度의 展望을 모색하였다. 現行 우리나라의 社會保險制度는 주로 水平的 또는 時間的 再分配機能을 遂行하고 있다. 또한 適用對象, 財政調達 그리고 給與體制의 限界로 인하여 社會保險의 再分配機能 역시 制限되어 있다. 그러므로 우리나라 社會保險制度는 全國民을 保護할 수 있도록 擴張되어져야 하며 水平的, 時間的 再分配機能뿐만 아니라 垂直的 個人間 再分配機能도 政策的으로 强化되어져야 하겠다.;Korea has approached social security programs in the sectors of social insurance, public assistance, and various social welfare services. Social insurance takes the major place among them, especially in Korea. Since the period of early 1960's, Korea has produced necessarily due to industrialization with the highest priority on national economic development polices. In recent years, the government has tried to make the balances between economic and social development in its 4th Five Year Economic Development Plan recognizing the deep chasum between them. As one approach, the government launched medical insurance in 1977 and is extending social insurance programs. The purpose of this study is to analyze the current situations of the Korean Social Insurance System from the viewpoint of redistribution. In Chapter Ⅱ, the concept of social security, the relationship between social security and national economy, and the relationships between social security and redistribution are presented, meanwhile the concept and characteristics of social insurance are explored. In Chapter Ⅲ, the developmental processes of Korean Social Security System are brought to discution. First, the analysis of Social Insurance is made. Second, the social insurances are classified by three categories, which are found by Pension Insurance, Medical Insurance and Insurance for Industrial Accident Compensation. Third, the social insurances are analynized by four dimensions, namely social insurance law, coverage population, financial system, and benefits system. And fourth, analytical studies are made in terms of redistribution function. In Chapter Ⅳ, on the basis of findings identified, some prospects about Korean Social Insurance are presented. Present Social Insurance System is mainly carried out by horizontal redistribution and inter-temporal redistribution. But the population covered, the financial system, and benefits system are so limited that the function of redistribution in social insurance is also deficient. Therefore, the Korean Social Insurance System must be extended from particular to all the groups. Through all these political measures, the vertical or inter personal redistribution as well as horizontal or intertemporal redistribution can be strengthened.
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