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어머니의 養育態度가 어린이의 男性-女性性에 미치는 影響

Title
어머니의 養育態度가 어린이의 男性-女性性에 미치는 影響
Authors
李藝英
Issue Date
1973
Department/Major
대학원 가정관리학과
Keywords
어머니양육태도남성여성
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
R.R. Sears와 그의 동료는 부모의 養育이 制約的(Restrictive)이면 일수록 어린이의 성격이 女性化 된다는 것을 밝혀낸바 있다. 이 美國에서의 연구결과를 검증하기 위하여 서울 시내에 있는 한 국민학교 4,5학년 어린이 (男子 190名, 女子 160名 )에게 本 硏究를 위해 開發한 男性-女性檢査 (Masculinity-Feminity Test 또는 M-f TEST)를 實施하고 性別로 M-F 点激 高低 極端群들 (男學生, 高点數群 47名, 低點數群 47名, 女學生 高點數群 40名,低點數群 40名)의 어머니에게는 子女, 養育態度檢査를 實施하였다. 이 養育檢査도 倂究의 一環으로 製作된것으로 現在 國內에 使用되고 있는 4個 調査問項과 새로운 問項을 토대로 要因分析하여 얻은것으로 이 分析을 통해 얻은 要因中 네가지 즉, 1) 溫情 - 敵對 2) 過保護(간섭) 3) 지나친 안달 및 4) 許容 - 制約을 포함했고, 그밖에 어머니에게서 成人用 M-F TEST를 倂行했다. 以上 어머니에게서 얻은 5가지 측정치를 從屬變因으로 하고 어린이의 性과 男性-女性性을 獨立變因으로 하여 2 (性) × 2 (男性-女性性) 設計下에 各 從屬變因에 對한 變量分析( Analysis of Variance)를 實施했다. 그 結果 男學生의 境遇 어머니가 敵對的 내지 冷情하면 할수록 아들은 女性的이되며, 女學生의 境遇 重要한 養育變因은 過保謹로서 어머니가 過保護的이면 일수록 女性的이 된다. 이밖에 男學生의 어머니는 女學生의 어머니 보다 더 男性的이라는 것도 밝혀 졌다. 이 마지막 結果는 집에 男子 어린이가 많으면 어머니의 行動이 影響을 받아 男性的인 行動을 하게 된다고 볼 수 있다. 다시 말하면 어린이가 어머니에게 影響을 주었다고 解釋된다. 그러나 어머니의 溫精이 아들의 男性-女性性에 대해 갖는 相關이나 또 어머니의 過保謹가 딸의 男性-女性性에 대해 나타낸 相關은 어머니가 아들에게 미치는 效果를 나타낼 可能性이 充分히 있다. 물론 위 두개의 相關關係가 아들의 行動이 어머니의 行動에 影響을 끼쳐서 생길 可能性이 완전히 없는것은 아니나 이것은 追後 硏究에서 밝힐 問題이다. 다만 어머니의 溫情-敵對態度가 男兒의 男性-女性性에 影響을 준다는 效果는 오래전 Terman과 Miles(1936)가 보고한 結果 卽, 어머니가 없거나 또는 兄第敎가 많아지면 女性性 點數가 높아진다는 事實과 附合된다. 끝으로 本 硏究 結果는 Sears등의 結果와는 달라 許容-制約 次元이 어린이의 男性-女性性에 影響을 주지 못했다. 그러나 本硏究에서 有意義한 效果를 낸 어머니의 溫情-敵對次元이나 過保護次元 許容-制約 次元과 흔히 混同되기 쉬운 것이고 또 密接한 關係가 있다. 例를 들어 敵對的 態度나 過保護的 態度는 보통 制約으로 解釋될 수 있다.;A study of R. R. Sears and his fellows revealed that the more restrictive on nature of children by parents, the more the character of children become feminine. In order to take a review of such study, a study on Masculinity-Feminity Test or M-F test was conducted as an object of school children (boys 190, girls 160) of 4th and 5th school years of the elementary school and a study on parental attitudes about nuturing of children was conducted by sex and superior group and inferior group about mothers falling the following categories, boy students, superior group 47, inferior group 47, girls superior group 40, inferior group 40). As this study of nature is created as an aspect of research, these basic four (4) types of investigations with are being widely used in domestic research, are included with other newly analysis factors, and four elements derived from these analysis, 1) Warmth-Hostility 2) Over Protective (Interference) 3) Anxious Emotional Involvement 4) Permissiveness-Restrictiveness are included, and in addition to this, M-F test was made against mothers, adults. Based on the five points as a survey value and as a subordinate factors, and on the basis of sex of children and masculinity-feminity as an independent factors, an analysis of variance was conducted on each subordinate factors under the 2 (sex)×2(masculinity-feminity). As a result of this investigation, it was turned out that the more parents become hostile and cold, the more boy students become feminine and in the some cases like girl students, the more mothers becomes over-protective daughters, the more the daughters become feminine. In addition to this, it was turned out that the mothers of boy students are more masculine than the mothers of girl students. The latter indicates that mothers having many sons, are effected by sons and becomes masculine. In other words, children can be a big factors in giving effects to mothers. However, there will be many probability that mothers can give a great effect to children in forming children's habits more than the effects tiven by children to theirmothers, such as interrelations of son's masculinity-feminity by mother's warmth and its vice versa. However, it can be anticipated that some acts by sons will effects to their mothers, and this problem is left open for future study. A study result showing that mother's warmth-hostility attitudes will effect son's masculinity-feminity is coincided with an investigation report by Terman and Miles(1936). In other words, in case a child has no mother and have many brothers and sisters he becomes femine. In the end, our investigation result shows different compared with the report of Sears, and also indicates that permissiveness-restrictiveness by mothers to children does not effect children's masculinity-feminity. Our significant investigation result shows that mother's warmth-hostility or over-protective of, and permissiveness-restrictiveness can be easily mixed and have close relationship. For instance, hostile acts or over-protective of attitude can be interpreted as restrictive act.
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