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사회복지시설로서 노인을 위한 주거환경 디자인에 관한 연구

Title
사회복지시설로서 노인을 위한 주거환경 디자인에 관한 연구
Other Titles
(A) Study on the Housing and Care Center Design for Eldery as Social Welfare-facilities
Authors
구영난
Issue Date
1988
Department/Major
대학원 장식미술학과
Keywords
사회복지시설노인주거환경디자인장식미술학
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
연구대상으로서 디자인은 미래에 대한 학문으로서, 사회적 변화를 예측하고 그에 대한 사전 계획(planning)과 창조(creation) 과정을 통하여 보다 나은 삶을 추구하는 것을 목적으로 한다고 말할 수 있다. 따라서 인간성 회복(Humanism)을 의식의 바탕으로 삶에 의미를 부여하는 것을 디자인 행위로 볼 때, 점차 산업화·도시화 해가는 우리 나라에 있어서 개인주의적인 가치관 및 핵가족화 현상 등으로 야기되는 노인들의 소외문제를 해결하기 위한 디자인 방안이 모색되어야 할 것이다. 이러한 노인문제는 세계적인 현상으로서 사회적으로 그 심각성이 대두되고 있으므로 대책수립과 함께 노후생활에 대한 다각적인 연구를 필요로 하고 있으며, 이는 사회복지 측면에서 검토되어야 하리라 본다. 그러므로 본 연구에서는 사회복지시설로서의 노인 주거환경을 계획하여 그 디자인 모형을 제시하고자 하며, 그 기본개념은 다음과 같다. 노인들의 신체적인 노화단계를 구분하여 그 변화에 대치할 수 있도록 의료시설을 포함하는 유동성있는 일상생활 공간을 계획하며 또한 한국의 실정을 고려하여 입주자가 일정금액을 부담하도록 하는 '유료노인의 집'으로 계획한다. 이에 따라서 「노후의 생활안정」, 「심신의 건강」, 「보람있는 노후생활」의 실현을 이념으로 하는 노인을 위한 주거환경을 그 기본 개념으로 계획하고자 한다. 이와같이 시대적·사회적으로 요청되고 있는 노인을 위한 주거환경이 노인들에게 총체적인 생활의 장이 되도록 실내·외 환경을 조화롭게 통합함을 목표로 하며 이 연구를 다음과 같이 요약할 수 있다. 첫째, 사회·문화적인 이해에 따른 주제의 타당성과 계획부지의 자연 조건을 파악하고, 디자인이 예술적인 가치체계를 이루도록 학제간의 접근(Inter-Disciplinary Approach)을 통한 디자인 기준을 마련한다. 둘째, 이에 따라 노인들의 생활터전이 지각심리를 고려한 실내·외 환경의 통합으로서 고유한 시각언어(pattern language)를 갖는 환경으로 계획한다. 세째, 객관적인 인자에 의해 피드백(feed back)하고 그 결과 물의 타당성 및 적합성을 평가하여 이 연구가 타당한 논리체계로 이루어 졌음을 논증하고자 한다. 따라서 궁극적인 목표를 만족시키도록 하며, 노후생활에 의미를 부여하는 총체적인 생활의 장으로서 계획하고자 한다. 이에 따라 디자인 과정의 일부로서 건축적 조형개념의 모형을 제시하면 다음과 같다. ◁그림 삽입▷(원문을 참조하세요) 위의 그림에서 나타난 건축적 조형 이미지는 시각언어로서 메시지(message)를 내포하는 의미체계로 계획하였다. 따라서 노인들에게는 즐거움과 만족을 주는 생활의 장으로서 접근자 및 주민들을 위해서는 랜드마크(land mark)의 기능을 수행하도록 하며, 사회적 측면에서는 복지의 이념에 부합하는 복지시설로서 그 대안을 제시하고자 한다.;As the structure of society becomes industrialized and urbanized, population becomes concentrated into cities and' as far as family system is concerned, a nuclear-family becomes a general phenomenon. Accordingly, old people came to lose their roles in the families as well as in the society. Also as our lives became well-off and as the medical science was developed, changes in the population-structure have been made ; this means the aged people-phenomenon and the increase of elder populations. This trend of more aged people is a worldwide phenomenon nowadays and the problem of old people became expanded to a social dimension, consequently it requires diversified study on the life of one's old age. To solve the problem of aged people on a social dimension, I would like to plan and present a living environmental design as social welfare facilities for the aged people in which Korean cituation was taken into consideration. Incidentally, the development towards a welfare society will be made possible only if civil social groups as well as the executive of a government become concerned about the issue and try to plan and operate the design. Following results can be summarized and obtained from the process of designing living environments for the aged people as social welfare facilities ; Chapter 1. By trying to systematize the problem-definition of the study, the necessity of the subject and the reasonable designing method, ranges of the design-objects were limited. Chapter 2. 1) By observing the current situation of the problem of aged people which appears to be a Social Phenomenon, the roles, positions and requirements (or needs) of aged people become understood. 2) By considering the aging process as a natural phenomenon of human development, and by understanding the hygienic, psychological, and social characteristics accompanying the process of being aged, I tried to plan and design a living environment for the aged people which can satisfy the general characteristics of the aged people. For this purpose, all the concerning matters, at the time of planning a living environment for the aged people, were presented. 3) For the aged people who feel physically, functionally, and mentally depressed, measures for the aged life should be established as a social welfare system, accordingly in this paper, by taking into consideration the current situation of Korea which is gearing her best effort to be an advanced nation (or a developed nation), I planned and designed a so called "stability in the aged life," "healthy and spiritual life", and of "worthwhile aged life", and also detailed plans and ideas concerning the matters were presented. Chapter 3. An Academic approach to the fields related to designing which newly becomes an issue in the field of design, was made an attempt to, and seen from the 1) system-theoretical point of view 2) communication theoretical point of view 3) empirical aesthetics-theoretical point of view a practical and reasonable method of living environment designing-process was presented. Chapter 4. Based on the existing books and data, a practical and reasonable method through academic approaches among the related fields was figured our and the process of designing living environments for the aged people and the results according to the this process were presented. Basic ideas and concepts can be summarized as follows ; 1) Through establishing the functions of appropriate and proper spaces, an living environment which has its internal orders can be planned and realized. 2) For the purpose of making the aged people's physical and psychological environmental conditions to be harmonized, a space related to medical affairs was designed as well as a daily living space. 3) The facilities were designed to be opened to a regional society, to be helpful to the continuous growth and developments, and to the general welfare of aged people. 4) For the purpose of qualitative improvements of the humanization of a space and of creating a comfortable living environment, a general designing concept which combines psysical elements, psychological elements, and Gestalt-elements together, was introduced. 5) By classifying the evaluation stages until today into the system of aesthetic, functional, and social evaluation, a proper decision was made and developed. Chapter 5. Living environmental design for the aged people is a whole system which is composed of organic combinations among the general elements, and it should be designed to be able to keep orders, and by having its own unique languague, it is a designing process which leads to a meaningful and worthwhile life of one's old age.
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