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高麗 象嵌靑磁에 나타난 牡丹紋樣의 硏究

高麗 象嵌靑磁에 나타난 牡丹紋樣의 硏究
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대학원 도예과
이화여자대학교 대학원
It is classified by a plain-patterned, an intaglio, an embrossment and an inlaying Koryo Celadon by way of ornamental technicks: we can find that was fresh and polished beauty in the inlaying Celadon of the Koryo with emphasis. This study aims to try the position was salient by clearing up the characteristics about the origins and kinds of the peony pattern that has compiled from materials through the collection of photographies which were owned by the University library and National Museum which given the first consideration to the peony pattern of design for inlaying Koryo Celadon. These following are the origins of an inlaying Koryo Celadon: exactly the year is not come to our knowledge but the arabesque bowl of rare form that had first found out the grave of the "Mun Kong You" who was died at 1159 (eu Jong the grave of the "Mun Kong You" who was died at 1159 (Eu Jong 13 year) considering that the fact was praised by "Seo Keung" who had visited the Koryo as a deligate from the Song at 1123 but was not refered to inlaying, it has been seemed to be selected from a important ornament technics of Koryo Celadon since the middle of 12C. We can find that decreased in inlaying technics which were the middle of 12C to the late 13C. The peony was spread to the shilla through by the Chineese, its first document was the tale of the Queen of Son Duck and the peony flower which was puton recorded on the historical annals of three kingdoms. Afterwards, it was an exquisite, ornamental and real form of Chineese style which toot in the foreign cultures in the period of Koryo Dynasty but it was developed into the indivisual design became of the Korean sense of beauty on a stage which has fixed on our pattern. Specifically, it shows us the design which our ancient took enjoyment in the peony pattern because it has the sense of good-omen not only riches and honors but also harmony and long-life from old times. Also we can find that the peony pattern shows itself an intaglio, and embrossment, an inlaying, a painting, a polishing-technics which covered with the whole shapes of Celadon variously. The intaglio technic described itself as a flower, a leaf, a stem and a vein which was an only works of art factually and naturally and its vessel form has a squared-bowl and a vase of plum-shaped. The embrossment technic was decorated with a twing in full bloom over the surface of the vessel and its form has a six flower-formed or a peony tile of maleformed and these become of the important deta to deduct the historical dates. The inlaying technic separated from an only bunch and an arabesque of peony by decorating and was divided into diamond-shaped and a concentric circle with a subdivision. There are the works of art which were decorated with an intaglio or an embross ent technics in Chineese but with an inlaying technics are only existed in Koryo Dynasty. Moreover, the peony pattern which was mixed with a pattern of Yeau Eu Doo, fret, Yeonu Phan and arabesque showed to better adventage. The painting technic was decorated with a twig in full bloom or an arabesque of peony with a bold touch all over the face and we can see the kind of a brass bowl with a lid, teakettle and vase, we feel the pictorial aspect which was much schematized to the peony of polishing technics. Seeing about that the peony pattern of the inlaying Koryo Celadon which was decorated with tendency of foreign style itself. However it is not an imitation, but it is a creative technics and we can see the situation of development which has been changed into suit to a Koryo.;靑磁에는 紋樣裝飾 技法에 따라 素紋 靑磁, 陰刻靑磁, 陽刻靑磁, 象嵌靑磁 등으로 分類하고 있으며 高麗時代 陶磁器를 代表할 수 있는 것은 象嵌靑瓷로서 맑고 세련된 紋樣을 볼 수 있다. 本 稿에서는 象嵌靑瓷에 施紋된 牡丹紋을 중심으로 각 박물관과 미술관의 소장품을 중심으로 紋樣을 고찰하고 문헌을 참고로 해서 象嵌靑瓷의 發生과 技法을 살펴보고 象嵌된 牡丹紋의 起原과 種類에 대한 特性을 고찰 함으로서 象嵌靑瓷에 施紋된 牡丹紋의 위치를 부각시켜 보았다. 象嵌靑瓷의 發生을 보면 정확한 年代는 알 수 없으나 의종 13년(1159년)에 죽은 文公裕의 墓誌에서 象嵌된 寶相唐草紋 대설이 처음으로 發見되고, 1123년 高麗에 왔던 宋使節團員의 한 명인 徐兢이 고려 色靑磁에 대해 칭찬한 사실은 있으나 象嵌에 대해 언급한 사실이 없는 점으로 보아 12세기 중엽부터 상감이 靑磁의 중요한 裝飾技法으로 채택되어 13세기 後伴까지 유행하다가 점차 쇠퇴되어 갔다고 볼 수 있다. 牡丹은 中國을 통해서 新羅時代에 전래되었는데 最初의 기록은 三國遺事에 기록된 善德女王과 牧丹꽃에 관한 이야기이다. 그 후 高麗時代에 와서 紋樣化되어 中國文化를 받아들이는 초기의 단계에서는 中國風의 섬세하고 장식적이고 사실적인 紋樣이었으나 우리의 紋樣으로 정착하는 단계에서는 韓國的인 소박하고 단순한 美意識으로 消化하여 象嵌技法에 의한 독자적인 도안으로 發展되면서 紋樣은 도식화되는 것을 볼 수 있다. 特히 牧丹이 즐겨 施紋된 이유는 예부터 富貴는 물론 和睦과 長壽의 吉祥意味가 있어 더욱 즐겨 施紋된 것으로 볼 수 있다. 牡丹紋은 靑磁 전반에 걸친 陰刻, 陽刻, 象嵌, 철회, 堆花技法등 多樣하게 施紋된 것을 볼 수 있으며 特히 象嵌靑瓷에 施紋된 것을 牡丹折枝紋과 牡丹唐草紋으로 나누고 牡丹折枝紋을 細分하면 牡丹이 한 송이 施紋된 것, 두송이 이상 施紋된 것으로 나누어 살펴보고, 表現된 樣式에 따라 菱形이나 二重圓圈안에 施紋된 牡丹紋의 특징과 종류를 알아 보았다. 또 상감청자 牡丹紋은 牡丹紋만을 施紋한 것도 있으나 거의 대부분이 菊花紋, 蓮瓣紋, 雷紋, 如意頭紋, 唐草紋 등과 함께 施紋되어 한층더 牡丹을 돋보이게 했음을 알 수 있고 형태 또한 多樣해서 梅甁, 甁類, 注子類, 壺, 대설, 盒, 盤 등이 있다. 이렇게 볼 때 高麗 象嵌靑瓷에 施紋된 牡丹이 紋樣 자체는 外國的인 趣向이었으나 모방에 그친 것이 아니라 獨創的인 象嵌技法으로 高麗人들에게 맞는 牡丹紋을 施紋했다고 본다.
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