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서울시내 일부 고등학생의 건강에 대한 지식ㆍ태도 및 실천행위간의 관련성 비교

Title
서울시내 일부 고등학생의 건강에 대한 지식ㆍ태도 및 실천행위간의 관련성 비교
Other Titles
(A) Comparative Study on the Relationship of Health Knowledge to Health Attitude and Health Practical Behaviors among High School Students in Seoul
Authors
노행인
Issue Date
2003
Department/Major
대학원 보건교육학과
Keywords
서울시고등학생건강실천행위
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
본 연구는 고등학생을 대상으로 건강에 대한 지식·태도 및 실천행위의 수준을 파악하고 이들간의 관련성을 분석하여 청소년의 건강증진 프로그램 개발 및 보건교육의 기초 자료를 제공하는데 그 목적을 두었다. 본 연구는 서울시내 강남구와 구로구에 소재한 고등학교 1, 2학년생 505명을 대상으로 하였으며, 2003년 4월 23일부터 5월 9일까지 17일간에 걸쳐 자기기입식 설문지에 의한 조사를 실시하였다. 수집된 자료는 모두 전산부호화하여 SPSS Win 11.0을 이용하였고, 빈도, 백분율, 평균 및 표준편차, X^(2)-test, t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe를 이용한 사후검정, Pearson Correlation의 통계기법에 의해 분석하였으며 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 강남지역과 구로지역 학생의 일반적 특성, 가족관련 특성, 건강관련 특성은 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 2. 건강에 대한 지식은 두 지역 평균점수가 강남지역이 13.97점, 구로지역이 14.64점으로 나타났으며 전체적인 평균점수는 14.35점(22점 만점)으로 65.2%가 올바른 지식을 갖고 있었다. 두 지역 모두에서 '흡연' 영역의 지식수준이 가장 높았고 '개인위생 및 일상생활습관'영역의 지식수준이 가장 낮았으며, 두 지역간에 '성' 영역에서 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 나타났다. 전체적으로 일반적 특성에서는 여학생에게서, 가정경제상태가 '중'인 학생이 '하'인 학생보다 지식수준이 높았고, 가족관련 특성에서는 어머니 직업이 '단순노무직'인 학생에게서 지식수준이 높았으며, 건강관련 특성에서는 건강관심도가 '상'인 학생이 '중', '하'인 학생보다 지식수준이 높았다. 3. 건강에 대한 태도는 두 지역 평균점수가 강남지역이 77.55점, 구로지역이 78.75점으로 나타났으며 전체적인 평균점수는 78.22점(110점 만점)으로 71.1%가 올바른 태도를 나타냈다. 두 지역 모두에서 '흡연' 영역의 태도수준이 가장 높았고 '안전 및 사고예방' 영역의 태도수준이 가장 낮았으며, 두 지역간에 '개인위생 및 일상생활습관' 영역에서 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 나타났다. 전체적으로 일반적 특성에서는 여학생과 2학년 학생에게서, 종교가 '불교'인 학생이 '기독교', '천주교', '기타'인 학생보다 태도수준이 높았고, 가족관련 특성에서는 어머니 학력이 낮을수록 태도수준이 높았으며, 건강관련 특성에서는 건강관심도가 '상'인 학생이 '중'인 학생보다 태도수준이 높았다. 4. 건강에 대한 실천행위는 두 지역 평균점수가 강남지역 63.99점, 구로지역 62.12점으로 두 지역간에 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 있었고, 전체적인 평균점수는 62.94점 (102점 만점)으로 61.7%가 올바른 실천행위를 하는 것으로 나타났다. 두 지역 모두에서 '흡연' 영역의 실천행위 수준이 가장 높았고 '성' 영역의 실천행위 수준이 가장 낮았으며, 두 지역간에 '운동'과 '정신건강 및 스트레스관리' 영역에서 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 나타났다. 전체적으로 일반적 특성에서는 남학생에게서, 가정경제상태가 '중'인 학생이 '하'인 학생보다 실천행위 수준이 높았고, 가족관련 특성에서는 아버지 학력이 '대학원졸이상'인 학생이 '고졸'인 학생보다 실천행위 수준이 높았고, 어머니 학력이 높을수록 실천행위 수준이 높았으며, 아버지 직업이 '전문관리직'인 학생이 '상업·사업'인 학생보다 실천행위 수준이 높았다. 그리고 부모님 건강관심도가 '상'인 학생이 '중', '하'인 학생보다 실천행위 수준이 높았다. 또한 건강관련 특성에서는 스스로 건강하다고 느끼는 학생이 건강하지 못하다고 느끼는 학생보다 실천행위 수준이 높았으며, 건강관심도가 높을수록, 건강을 위해 현재 운동이나 다이어트를 실행하고 있는 학생에게서 실천행위 수준이 높았다. 그리고 보건교육을 받은 횟수가 5회 이상인 학생이 0회, 1 "2회인 학생보다 실천행위 수준이 높았다. 5. 건강에 대한 지식·태도 및 실천행위간의 관련성은 지식과 태도(r=0.227, p<0.01), 지식과 실천행위(r=0.262, p<0.01)에서 통계적으로 유의한 양의 상관관계를 나타냈으나 그 관련성은 비교적 낮은 편이었고, 태도와 실천행위는 통계적으로 유의한 상관관계가 나타나지 않았다. (1) 지식과 태도간의 관련성에서는 '영양 및 식습관', '운동', '성', '약물사용', '질병예방 관련행위', '음주' 영역에서 통계적으로 유의한 양의 상판관계가 나타난 반면 '안전 및 사고예방' 영역에서는 통계적으로 유의한 음의 상관관계가 나타났다. (2) 태도와 실천행위간의 관련성에서는 건강에 대한 10가지 영역 모두에서 통계적으로 유의한 상관관계를 나타냈는데, '성', '약물사용', '질병예방 관련행위', '음주', '흡연'영역에서 유의한 양의 상관관계가 나타난 반면, '영양 및 식습관', '운동', '개인위생 및 일상생활습관', '정신건강 및 스트레스관리', '안전 및 사고예방' 영역에서는 유의한 음의 상관관계가 나타났다. (3) 지식과 실천행위간의 관련성에서는 통계적으로 유의한 상관관계를 나타낸 '영양 및 식습관', '성', '질병예방 관련행위', '안전 및 사고예방' 영역 모두 양의 상관관계를 보였다.;The purpose of this study was to examine the health knowledge, attitude and behaviors of high school students and find out their relationship in an effort to lay the foundation for the development of health-promotion programs and health education for adolescents. The subjects were 505 students in their first and second year of high school in Gangnam-gu and Guro-gu, Seoul. After a survey was conducted for 17 days from April 23 to May 9, 2003, with self-administered questionnaires, the collected data were encoded and analyzed with SPSS Win 11.0 program. The frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation were calculated, and x^(2) -test, t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe Post Hoc Tests and Pearson Correlation procedure were employed. The findings of this study were as below: 1. There appeared significant differences in general traits, family-related characteristics and health-related features between the students in Gangnam and the others in Guro. 2. The collective average of the Gangnam dwellers in health knowledge was 13.97, and that of the Guro dwellers was 14.64. The overall collective average was 14.35(total of 22 points), and 65.2 percent of the students investigated had a correct knowledge. In both regions, smoking knowledge ranked first, and knowledge about personal hygiene and daily living habits ranked lowest. And the students from the two areas had a significantly different knowledge about sex. Overall, the girl students had a better knowledge, and those from the middle-class families outperformed the students from the low-class families in health knowledge. As to family-related characteristics, the students whose mothers were elementary occupations were higher in level of health knowledge. Regarding health-related characteristics, the students who were highly health-conscious excelled the others who had average level of interest or poor interest in health. 3. The students from Gangnam scored a mean of 77.55 in health attitude, and the others from Guro got an average of 78.75. The overall collective average was 78.22(total of 110 points), and 71.1 percent took a correct attitude toward health. In both regions, smoking attitude ranked best, and attitude toward safety and accident prevention was rated lowest. And the students from the two regions had a significantly different attitude toward personal hygiene and daily living habits. Overall, the students who were girls and in their second year took better health attitude, and Buddhists were more excellent in health attitude than those who were Christian, Catholic or had other religions. Concerning family-related characteristics, the students whose mothers were less educated were better. As for health-related features, those who were highly health-conscious outperformed the students who had average level of interest in health. 4. In the field of health behavior, the Gangnam residents got a mean of 63.99, and the Guro dwellers scored a mean of 62.12. There was a significant gap between the two groups, and the overall collective average was 62.94(total of 102 points). 61.5 percent tried to stay fit in a correct behavior. In both regions, smoking behavior ranked best, and sex behavior ranked lowest. The students from the two regions differed significantly in exercise, mental health and stress management. By general characteristics, the boys put their health knowledge into practice more than the girls, and those from the middle-class families outdid the students from the low-class families in health behavior. As to family-related characteristics, those whose fathers received graduate-school or higher education were better than the students whose fathers received high-school education, and those whose mothers were better-educated were more excellent. Those whose fathers were professionals outperformed the students whose fathers were engaged in commerce or did business. And the students whose parents were highly health-conscious were better than the others whose parents had average level of or poor interest in health. In regard to health-related features, those who felt themselves to be in good shape were better than the others who didn't felt so. And those who were more health-conscious, on a diet or got exercise were more excellent. And the students who received health education five times or more made greater efforts to be healthy than those who received no education or took it once or twice. 5. Concerning the relationship of health knowledge to health attitude and behavior, the health knowledge showed significantly positive correlation with health attitude(r=0.227, p<0.0l), and the health knowledge showed significantly positive correlation with health behavior(r=0.262, p<0.00l). But their relationship is comparatively low. The health attitude was not significantly correlated to health behavior. (1) The health knowledge had significantly positive correlation to health attitude in the fields of nutrition and dietary habit, exercise, sex, drug use, disease-preventive behavior and drinking. In contrast, their correlation was significantly negative in the area of safety and accident prevention. (2) The health attitude was significantly correlated to health behavior in all the 10 areas. Their correlation was significantly positive in the fields of sex, personal hygiene and daily living habit, drug use, disease-preventive behavior, drinking and smoking, but that was significantly negative in the areas of nutrition and dietary habit, exercise, mental health and stress management, safety and accident prevention. (3) The health knowledge had significantly positive correlation to health behavior in the fields of nutrition and dietary habit, sex, disease- preventive behavior, safety and accident prevention.
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