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舊韓末 女性敎育機關 設立者의 敎育觀에 관한 硏究

Title
舊韓末 女性敎育機關 設立者의 敎育觀에 관한 硏究
Other Titles
(A) study of the founder's educational concept on women's insitution in the late period of Yi dynasty
Authors
洪淳淑
Issue Date
1984
Department/Major
교육대학원 교육학전공교육행정분야
Keywords
구한말여성교육기관설립자교육관
Publisher
梨花女子大學校 敎育大學院
Degree
Master
Abstract
本 硏究는 1880년대부터 1910년까지 이르는 舊韓末 開化期에 女性敎育意識이 어떻게 發展되어 女性敎育機關을 設立하게 되었는가를 考察하여 現代 女性敎育의 示唆點을 찾는데 있다. 韓國의 女性이 傳統的 儒敎觀의 支配로부터 벗어나 近代敎育을 받게 된 것은 1880年代에 基督敎 傳來와 더불어 시작되었고 先覺者들에 의하여 女性敎育意識은 점진적으로 發展되어 갔다. 그러나 전통적 사회의 制約과 이에 뒤따라야 할 政策的 뒷받침이 없었기 때문에 女性敎育은 순조롭게 普及되지 못하였다. 基督敎의 宣敎師들은 女性敎育에 있어서 男女平等觀에 立脚한 女性敎育機關을 設立 運營하여 왔으며 또 한편으로는 독립신문을 비롯한 其他 言論을 통하여 잠자는 이 나라의 女性敎育意識을 크게 자극하였다. 1894년 甲午改革 以後 官立 小學校, 師範學校, 中學校 등이 設置 運營되었으나 女性敎育을 위한 中等敎育機關은 1908년에 이르러서 漢城高等女學校(現 京畿女子高等學校)의 設置를 보게 되었다. 그 간의 女學校 設立 運動은 女性 스스로의 自覺과 覺醒으로 女性社會團體에서도 展開되었으며 女性敎育機關은 官學보다 私學이 먼저 세워졌다. 그 중에서도 미션계 女學校가 民間人 女學校보다 먼저 세워졌다. 이와같이 官立 女學校의 設立이 늦어진 것은 政府 自體의 無誠意와 男尊女卑의 思想에서 결과된 것이다. 1905년 韓日協約에 따라 日本 植民地 政策下에 놓이게 되니 敎育救國運動이 展開되면서 全國에 수많은 男女學校의 設立을 보게 되었으며 國民의 敎育熱 敎育意識은 특히 女性의 敎育意識을 일깨워 주었다. 舊韓末 開化期의 女學校 設立 初期에는 入學을 願하는 學生이 극소수였던 것으로 보아 女性敎育 意識이 一般化되지 못하였다. 女性敎育機關 設立者의 敎育理念은 공통적으로 賢母良妻에 두었으며 宣敎系는 기독교적 여성을 만든다는 二重的인 理念을 가지고 있다. 특히 民間系는 救國愛族의 근본적인 교육理念을 볼 수 있다. 비록 당시의 女性敎育機關이 규모나 질에 있어서 微微한 것에 지나지 않았으나 舊韓末 女性敎育은 새로운 人間型의 産出을 意味하였고 國民의 開化意識 發展에 原動力이 되었다. 오늘날 우리나라의 女性敎育은 質的 量的으로 많은 發展이 있었고 또 女性의 社會 參與가 증가되어 女性社會에 커다란 變化를 가져왔다. 이러한 女性敎育의 變化는 男女平等의 次元을 넘어서 女性의 人間化 敎育이 앞서야 한다는 추세이다. 오늘의 時代가 要求하고 필요로 하는 女性은 家庭中心의 閉鎖性을 극복하고 社會的 機能을 擴大시켜 나갈 수 있는 女性이라야 한다. 그러므로 이러한 現實的인 女性問題를 해결하기 위하여 韓國의 女性敎育 發展 方向은 男女共學을 확대 실시하여 교과목. 교재, 교육방침에 있어서 男女가 어울려 생활하는 意識化 敎育 및 個人의 능력 본위로 각자 할 일(직업)을 선택함으로써 보다 새로운 文化와 價値를 創造할 수 있을 것이다.;The Purpose of this study is to figure out how the educational consciousness of women in the late Yi Dynasty from 1880 to 1910 had developed and induce the various instructions for the education of modern women in Korea. It was not until 1880s when Christianism had been introduced in to this country that Korean women who had had little opportunity to be educated under the influence of traditional Confucianism were able to get modern education. From that era the education of women attracted much concern of the far-sighted leaders. But because of the lack of political measures and the restrictions of traditional society, the education of women did not normally progress. The missionaries in this land began to establish and operate the modern institutions for women's educa-tion, based on the equality of the sexes. On the other hand, the various mass media including "The Independence" stimulated women's education. After the Reform of 1894, many public schools (elementary schools, middle schools and normal schools) were set up. But Hansung Girls' Middle School (present Kyungkee Girls' High School), the first women's public middle school, was founded only in 1908. Meanwhile, many women's social groups that were the leading spirits in those days began to establish a lot of educational institutions for women. The private schools, especially the mission schools, were founded before the public school on account of the unconcern of the government and the predominance of men over women. In 1905 when Korea began to be under the Japanese colonial policy according to the newly contracted Korea-Japan Agreement, nation. salvation through education was insisted and it stimulated the establishment of many school-both for men and women. Thus the concern for women's education was greatly stirred up. Only few students wanted to enter school in the early stage of Che women's education, in the Englightened Stage of the late Yi Dynasty. The founders of educational institutions for women generally laid emphasis on bringing up the type of a wise mother and good wife. Moreover, in the mission schools they had another purpose of Christianizing women. Especially the private schools had the educational idea of nation of nat ion salvation and philantrophy. Women's education in its early stage was minute in quality and scale. However, it gave birth to enlightened human beings and became the driving force in the development of che people's self-realization. Today women's education has made much progress in quality and quantity. Besides, the increasing participation of women in the school activities has brought a desirable change in our society. Women's education of today puts emphasis on the self-realization of women far above on the equality of the sexes. Korean society needs the types of women who take active part in the social activities, instead of being only confided to their "narrow" homes. By enlarging the coeducation system, equal opportunities can be given to both men and women in curricula and extracurricula activities. And it will contribute to creat a new value and civilization of our society, as it encourages students to choose their own career according to their innate abilities.
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