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산업장 보건교육과 근로자 건강상태에 관한 연구

Title
산업장 보건교육과 근로자 건강상태에 관한 연구
Other Titles
(The) Study on the Work site Health Education and Workers' Health Status : Focusing on Small and Medium Industries
Authors
송현종
Issue Date
1996
Department/Major
대학원 보건교육학과
Keywords
산업장보건교육근로자건강상태
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
산업장 보건교육은 산업보건 사업 중 가장 기본적이고 적극적인 활동이며 노동생산성 향상 및 근로자의 건강증진을 위해서 필수적인 사업으로 산업보건 서비스의 중요한 구성요소이다. 근로자의 건강상태 평가는 산업장 건강증진 정책의 일부분으로 산업보건 사업의 효과를 측정하기 위해서 근로자의 건강상태를 파악하는 것은 매우 중요하다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 산업장 보건교육의 실태 및 근로자의 건강상태를 파악하여 보건교육이 근로자 건강상태에 미치는 영향을 규명하고자 부천지역 28개 산업장의 근로자 625명을 대상으로 1996년 8월 27일부터 9월 30일까지 설문조사를 실시하였으며 건강진단 자료를 분석하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 1. 대상자의 일반적 특성 중 성별 분포는 남성이 66.5%이었고 연령분포는 3, 40대가 59.5%로 과반수 이상을 차지하였다. 학력에 있어서는 45.3%의 근로자가 고졸이었으며 월수입은 60만원 이상 100만원 미만이 40.3%로 가장 많았고 대상자의 69.4%가 기혼이었다. 2. 직업적 특성에서 근무년수는 2년에서 5년인 근로자가 37.9%로 가장 많았고 단순생산직에 종사하는 근로자가 69.4%였으며 유해부서 근로자는 26.4%로 일반부서 근로자가 더 많았고 평사원이 65.8%를 차지하였다. 1일 평균 9시간에서 10시간 근무하는 대상자가 71.8%로 가장 많았으며 56.0%가 야간작업을 하였다. 조사 대상자의 29.9%는 작업량이 많다고 하였고 작업환경에 불만족한 근로자는 33.6%였으며 직무만족도에 있어서 19.1%의 근로자가 불만족한다고 하였다. 3. 조사 대상자의 39.4%가 보건교육을 경험하였으며 주제별로는 안전교육 내용이 가장 많았고, 가족보건이 가장 적었다. 보건교육 경험 근로자의 70.7%가 보건교육이 자신의 건강관리에 도움이 되었다고 인식하였다. 4. 대상자의 건강상태는 인지된 건강상태와 건강검진 후 의사에 의해 판정된 건강등급으로 파악하였는데 41.0%가 스스로 건강하다고 인지하였으며 의사에 의해 건강하다는 판정(A, B)을 받은 건강자는 70.0%이었다. 5. 연령이 증가할수록 자신을 건강하지 않다고 인지한 근로자가 많았으며(p<0.05) 보호구를 착용하는 근로자가 착용하지 않는 근로자에 비해서 자신을 건강하다고 인지하는 근로자가 많았다. 학력이 높을수록 건강자가 많았는데 그 차이는 통계학적으로 유의하였고 근무년수가 증가할수록 비건강자가 많았으며(p<0.01), 일반부서 근로자에 비해 유해부서 근로자에서 비건강자가 많았고(p<0.001), 직무만족도가 낮을수록 비건강자가 많았는데 이는 통계학적으로 유의하였다. 6. 보건교육을 받은 경험이 있는 근로자가 받은 경험이 없는 근로자에 비해 자신을 건강하다고 인지한 근로자가 많았고 (p<0.001) 유해부서 근로자에서 보건교육 경험근로자가 비경험 근로자에 비해 건강자가 많았으며 그 차이는 통계학적으로 유의하였다(p<0.05). 7. 보건교육 주제 중 성인병, 안전, 건강습관 주제의 보건교육을 경험한 근로자가 비경험 근로자에 비해서 건강자가 많았으며 그 차이는 통계학적으로 유의하였다. 보건교육에 대해 만족하는 근로자가 보통 또는 그 이하로 불만족하는 근로자에 비해 인지된 건강상태가 좋았다(p<0.05). 8. 건강상태에 영향을 미치는 요인을 선정하기 위해 로지스틱 회귀분석을 실시한 결과, 인지된 건강상태에 영향을 미치는 변수는 보건교육 경험유무와 보호구 착용이었으며 보건교육을 경험한 근로자가 경험하지 않은 근로자에 비해 자신을 건강하다고 인지하는 비차비는 2.69이었다(p<.001). 건강등급에 의한 건강상태에 영향을 미치는 변수는 보건교육 경험유무, 학력, 근무부서, 직무만족도이었다. 일반부서에 근무하는 근로자가 유해부서에 근무하는 근로자에 비해 건강자가 2.07배 많았으며(p<0.01) 보건교육 경험 근로자가 비경험 근로자에 비해 건강군에 속하는 비차비는 1.62였다(p<0.05).;The worksite health education is the most fundamental and active area in the industrial health and is an essential service for improvement of productivity and employee's health. Evaluating the workers' health status is a part of the occupational health promotion policy and is very important to measure the effect of the occupational health service. In this point, the purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of the worksite health education on workers' health status. This study included a survey of 625 workers at 28 factories in Puchon area form August 27 to September 30, 1996. The research was carried out through the analysis of the self-administered questionnaires and health examination records. The results were as follows: 1. For demographic characteristics, 66.5% of the respondents were male. The most prevalent age group was 30 - 39years group(30.4%). Those who graduated from high school were 43.5%. The workers whose monthly income ranged from 600,000 to 100,000 won were 40.3%. As for the marital status, 69.4% of the respondents were married. 2. For occupational characteristics, 37.9% of the workers had worked 2 to 5 years in the factories, 69.4% of the respondents worked at the assembly line and the staffs were 27.0%. 26.4% of the respondents worked at hazardous workplace and 71.8% of the workers worked 9 to 10 hours a day. Those who worked during the night were 56.0%. Those who felt much for them workload were 29.9% and were dissatisfied with their working environment and job were 33.6%, 19.1%. 3. The 39.4% of the respondents received the worksite health education and most of them received on the safety and only few on family health. 70.7% out of those who had worksite health education reported it helped their health management. 4. The health status was evaluated by the perceived health status and the health grade investigated by health examination record. For the perceived health status of respondents, 41.0% answered they were healthy. And for the health status inspected by health grade, A, B, the healthy were 70.0%. 5. Perceived health status showed significant difference among the different age groups(p<0.05). For health status by health grade, more workers were unhealthy as their age and monthly income went up. The more educated workers were healthier than the less educated. The differences were statistically significant. The health status according to health grade showed differences according to their working duration, workplace, working hours a day and job satisfaction. As their working duration got longer the more workers were unhealthy(p<0.0l), more workers at hazardous workplace were unhealthy than others(p<0.0001). Longer working hours a day and dissatisfaction on the job caused unhealthiness of the workers. All the above differences were statistically significant. 6. The workers who received worksite health education perceived to be healthy than those who did not receive(p<0.001). After controlling the effect of workplace on the health grade, there were more healthy workers among those who received worksite health education compared to those who didn't. And this difference was statistically significant(p<0.05). 7. Workers those who had the education on safety, health habit were healthier(A, B) than those who didn't and the difference was statistically significant. Of the health educated workers, those who were satisfied with the health education perceived their health to be good than those who were dissatisfied(p<0.05). 8. To designate the factors influencing workers' health status, logistic regression analysis has been done. According to the results of this analysis, the experience of health education and wearing the protective devices were selected as significant factors associated with the perceived health status. The workers who received worksite health education perceived their health to be good than uneducated with a 2.69 odds ratio(p<0.001). And experience health education had the most influencing on perceived health status. Receiving health education, education level, workplace and job satisfaction had statistically significant associations with good health status investigated by health grade. The workers who worked at general workplace were health than those who worked at hazardous with a 2.07 odds ratio(p<0.0l). The health educated workers had a good health status than uneducated with a 1.62 odds ratio(p<0.05).
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