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스트레스와 사회적지지에 대한 일 연구

스트레스와 사회적지지에 대한 일 연구
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대학원 교육심리학과
스트레스사회적 지지자폐아어머니정상아어머니
이화여자대학교 대학원
The purpose of this study is to provide some efficient, systematic programs intervened by the mothers of autistic-children and also, basic data for consulting mothers through comparision and analysis of the levels of stress and the social supports of the mothers of autistic childen and the mothers of normal children. For an approach to this study, 60 mothers of autistic-children who were receiving medical cares at certain medical and educational centers in Seoul area and 60 members of normal children who were att- ending certain kindergartens and artistic institutes in the same area were used to be subjects for the T-test with defferences between those two groups with regard to MI(Malaise Inventory ; Rutter, Tizard, and Whitemore 1970). MSI (Maternal Stress Inventory : Pearl in and Schooler, 1978), and the degree of social support(Park, Ji Won Standardization 1985). and then, to find out correlations between them, some proper rate coefficients of correlation were calculated, then tested their significance. The results from this process are as follows; 1. The mother group of autistic-children showed signicance in physiological reaction(t=3.14, p<.00l) and emotional reaction(t=5.74, p< .001), which are included in general stress, and also indicated significant difference(t=2.82, p<.010 in the stress with regard to sex- role Therefore, these results meant that the mother group of autistic children was taking a double psychological charge(t=12.28, p<. 001) for raising lisabled children. For classification of the social supports, when some forms of support with regard to specific models of support-stress events-are looked into, the instrumental support included in the specific models of support was not significant in the mother group of autistic children than in the mother group of normal children, but the mother grow of autistic-children recognized that they were receiving some support, and in the mean time, in emotional support, the mother group of normal children was inclined to think that they received more support, there- fore, its differences are also significant(t=2.56, p<.05). 2. Meanwhile. with regard to the need of support felt in social relationship, it means that they recognize that the mother group of normal children gets more support socially than the mother grput of autistic-children does (t =-2.64, p<. 01 ). 3. When correlations between the degree of social support and that of stress were seen in the mother group of the autism and the mother group of the normal no significant correlations between. the forms of social support and the need of support, and general stress and stress w i th regard to mother-role were shown (r=. 00- -19, . 00 p<. 08). However, in the mother group of the normal, significant, additional correlations between the aforementioned factors were shown(-.33 p<-.29. p<.05, or p <.0l). This result means that, in the mother group of the normal, the more social support they got, the more so, when synthesizing the afcrementioned results, it is known that mothers of the autism are living on in a tensed condition psychologically and mentally, because of the double psychological charge for raising the autistic children. And, most of them thought that they didn't get any support from neighbors, but only helped togather with mothers of the same condition-the autistic or get the kind supports of information, advice etc. from certain experts on this field and professional institutes. But, in contrast with that, mothers of the autism do not only feel stress but also they reported a fact that the psychological inflexibility was dissolved for being loved or being recognized by husband, intimate friends, neibours, etc. This means that, to mothers of the normal, social support gives a good buffer action effect to dissolve some stress.;자폐아어머니와 정상아어머니의 스트레스 수준과 사회적 지지를 비교 분석하여 그 결과를 바탕으로 자폐아어머니의 효과적이고 체계적인 개입 프로그램 및 부모상담의 기초자료를 제공하는데 본 연구의 목적이 있다. 이를 위해 본 연구에서는 서울시내 치료교육 기관에서 교육받고 있는 자폐아동의 어머니 60명과 유아원 및 예능학원에 다니고 있는 아동의 어머니 60명을 대상으로, MI(Malaise Inventory, Rutter, Tizard, Whitmore, 1970), MSI(Matermal Stress Inventory, Pearl in, Schooler, 1978)와 사회적 지지(박지인, 표준화 1985)를 실시하여 두 집단의 차이를 t검증하였으며, 사회적 지지와 스트레스 수준의 상관관계를 알아보기 위하여 Pearson의 적률상관계수를 내고 그 유의도를 검증하였다. 본 연구에서 밝혀진 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 자폐아어머니군은 정상아어머니군보다 일반적 스트레스에 포함되는 생리적 반응(t=3.14, P<.001), 정서적 반응 (t=5,74, P<.001)에서 유의한 차이를 보였으며, 모성역할에서 오는 스트레스도 역시 유의한 차이를 (t=2.82, P<.01) 보였다. 이 결과는 자폐아어머니군이 심한 지체를 보이는 장애아를 양육함에 따라 이중의 심리적 부담을 가지고 있음을 (t=12.28, P<.001) 나타냈다. 2. 사회적 지지에 대한 분류에 있어서 스트레스 사건-지지 특징모델에 따라 지지형태를 살펴보면, 그 안에 포함된 도구적 지지에서는 자폐아어머니군이 정상아어머니군보다 유의하지는 않지만 지지 받는다고 지각하는 반면, 정서적 지지에서는 정상아어머니군이 더 지지 받는다고 지각하는 경향이 있으며 그 차이 또한 유의하였다. (t=-2.56, P<.05) 한편 사회관계에서 느끼는 지지욕구에 대해서는 자폐아어머니군보다 정상아어머니군이 사회적으로 더 많이 지지받고 있다고 지각하고 있음을 의미한다. (t=-2.54, P<.01) 3. 사회적 지지도와 스트레스와의 상관관계를 자폐아어머니군과 정상아어머니군에서 보면 자폐아어머니군에서는 사회적 지지의 형태와 욕구, 일반 스트레스 및 모성역할 스트레스간에는 유의한 상관이 없었다. (r=.00∼.19, .00
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