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초등학교 아동의 비판적 사고력 및 창의적 사고력과 학업성적의 상호 관계

Title
초등학교 아동의 비판적 사고력 및 창의적 사고력과 학업성적의 상호 관계
Other Titles
(A) Study Between Critical Thinking and Creative Thinking and Academic Achievement of Elementary School of Children
Authors
조수향
Issue Date
1994
Department/Major
교육대학원 교육학전공교육과정분야
Keywords
초등학교아동사고력학업성적
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
이귀윤
Abstract
본 연구는 초등학교 아동들의 비판적 사고력과 창의적 사고력이 학업 성적과 갖는 상관관계를 알아보는 데 그 목적이 있다. 연구의 구체적인 목표는 다음과 같다. 1. 아동들의 비판적 사고력과 창의적 사고력은 남여별, 학년별 차이가 있는가? 2. 아동들의 능력별 학업 성적에 따른 비판적 사고력과 창의적 사고력의 상관은 어떠한가? 3. 아동들의 각 교과 학업 성적에 따른 비판적 사고력과 창의적 사고력의 상관은 어떠한가? 본 연구는 서울 특별시에 소재하는 국떤학교 4학년과 6학년에서 4학급 총 175명을 대상으로 한국 교육개발원에서 제작한 사고력 검사를 실시한 후 전 학기에 실시한 학업성적과 그 상관관계를 알아보았다. 학업 성적은 1993년 1학기 말 성적으로 교과목(도덕, 국어, 사회, 산수, 자연, 체육, 음악, 미술, 실과)의 성적은 2회의 지필평가와 교사가 수시로 행한 실기평가를 합한 총점이고 검사지는 비판적 사고력과 창의적 사고력으로 구성되어 있다. 자료처리는 SAS 프로그램에 의해 남여별, 학년별에 따른 사고력의 차이는 평균과 표준편차를 구하여 t검증하였고, 학업 성적과 사고력의 상관관계는 Pearson 상관계수로 통계 처리하였다. 연구 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 비판적 사고력은 6학년이 높았으나 평균(8.5점) 창의적 사고력은 4학년이 높았다.(평균 5점), 이는 학년이 올라갈 수록 학생들이 비판적, 수동적 사고력을 강조하는 학교 풍토에 익숙해짐으로써 상대적으로 창의적 확산적 사고력에서는 후퇴하는 일면을 보인다고 판단된다. 이는 학년이 올라갈수록 학생들이 비판적, 수렴적 사고력을 강조하는 학교 풍토에 익숙해짐으로써 상대적으로 창의적, 확산적 사고력에서는 후퇴하는 일면을 보인다고 판단된다. 2. 학업성적과 비판적 사고력과 창의적 사고력을 합한 사고력(합)의 상관은 r=.58의 중위 상관을 보였고, 비판적 사고력 (r=.56)이 창의적 사고력(r=.45) 보다 학업성적과의 상관이 높았다. 3. 학업성적을 상·중·하위 집단으로 나누어 사고력과의 상관을 살펴보면 하위집단이 상·중위 집단보다 높았다. 이의 원인이 상위집단의 최고 한계 때문은 아니며 학업성적 상위집단은 사고력 이외에 학업성취에 대한 다른 요인이 학업성적 상위집단 보다는 크게 작용했기 때문이라고 추측된다. 4. 학년간 학업성적과 비판적 사고력과 창의적 사고력을 합한 사고력과의 관계는 4학년이 r=.61, 6학년이 r=.59의 비교적 높은 상관을 보였고, 비판적 사고력이 창의적 사고력보다 학업성적과 갖는 상관이 높았다. 5. 학년별 학업성적 상중하위 집단의 학업성책과 사고력과의 관계를 살펴보면 4학년의 비판적 사고력과 창의적 사고력은 하위집단으로 갈수록 학업성적과의 상관이 높아지지만 6학년은 비판적·사고력에서 상위집단이 중위집단보다 상관이 높으며, 창의적 사고력은 상위집단으로 갈 수록 학교성적과의 상관이 더 높아졌다. 이는 학년이 높아질 수록 공부 잘하는 집단이 사고력과 점점 더 높은 상관을 가질 수 있다는 가능성을 의미한다. 6. 남여별 각교과 학업성적과 사고력과의 관계는 대부분 비판적 사고력이 창의적 사고력보다 높은 상관을 나타냈지만 남·여 전체의 도덕교과, 남자의 미술 교과, 여자의 음악교과는 창의적 사고력과 더 높은 상관을 나타냈다. 7. 사고력과 가장 관계가 높은 교과는 국어(r=.63)이고, 낮은 교과는 산수 (r=.32)였다. 대부분 자연, 사회, 실과는 학업성적과 사고력인 비교적 높은 상관에 모여있고 창의적 사고력은 비판적 사고력에 비해 전 교과 낮거나 비교적 낮은 상관에 모여있다.;The goal of this study is to examine the correlation that the critical thinking and the creative thinking have with study score. The concrete goal of study is as follows: 1. Is there any difference in the critical thinking and the creative power of thought of the children at primary school, between males and females, and among grades? 2. How is the correlation between the critical thinking and the creative thinking which is attendant upon the study score by the ability of the children at primary school? 3. How is the correlation between the critical thinking and the creative thinking which is attendant upon the study score of each subject of the children at primary school? In this study, this researcher examined the correlation with the study score executed in the former semester, after executing the examination of power of thought manufactured in Korea Education Development Institute on total 175 students of 4 classrooms out of the 4th grade and the 6th grade at primary school located in Seoul Study score is the score at the end of the 1st semester in 1993. Then, the score of subjects(morality, national language, social studies, arithmetic, nature, physical education, music and fine art) is the total score that the evaluation at the end of semester over 2 times and the practical talent evaluation that the teacher executed on demand were totalled. Examination paper is composed of critical power of thought and creative power of thought. Data handling was made by SAS Program. And, about the difference of the power of thought attendant upon the males and females and grades, t-verification was made by obtaining average and standard deviation. And, about the correlation between study score and power of thought, statistical handling was made with Pearson co-efficient. 1. As for the average of the whole of power of thought and the creative power of thought between males and females, female was high. But, it was not at significant level. And, about the critical power of thought, female was high at significant level. 2. As for the whole average of power of thought among grades, the 6th grade was high. But, it was not at significant level. And, about the critical power of thought, the 6th grade was high at significant level. And, about the creative power of thought, the 4th grade was higher, though it was not at significant level. 3. The relation of study score and power of thought between males and females is showing the significant correlation. But, in case of all of males and females, critical power of thought showed higher correlation than creative power of thought. 4. In examining the correlation with the power of thought by classifying the study score into upper group, middle group and lower group, the correlation of whole children came to be high, in case of lower group. 5. As for the relation of the study score and the power of thought among grades, r=.61 in case of the 4th grade, and r=.59 in case of the 6th grade. Thus, it is the correlation of significant level. And, in case of all of the 4th grade and the 6th grade, critical power of thought showed higher correlation than creative power of thought. 6. In examining the correlation with the power of thought, by classifying the study score among grades into upper group, middle group and lower upper, it came to be high at the 4th grade in case of lower grade, and, in case of the 6th grade, upper grade is higher than middle group in critical power of thought. And, in the creative thinking, the correlation with study score came to be high, in case of upper group. 7. To see the relation of the study score of each subject of each subject and the power of thought between males and females, each subject except arithmetic showed the significant correlation at .001 level. And, as for the relation between critical power of thought and creative power of thought, critical power of thought showed higher correlation than creative power of thought. Then, Morality subject of whole males and females, fine art subject of males, and music subject of females showed higher correlation than creative power of thought. 8. As for the power of thought and the order of study score of each subject between males and females, it emerged that national language subject is highest, and that arithmetic is lowest, in whole sections. For the most part, as for the subjects of nature, social studies and practical course, critical power of thought is gathering in relatively high correlation, in case of all of males and females. And, creative power of thought is relatively low, or it is gathering in low correlation over whole subjects. But, among them, as for the subjects that order is high in comparison with critical power of thought, they are morality and fine art in case of whole children, and they are social studies and fine art in case of males, and they are morality and fine art in case of females. 9. As for the relation between the study score of each subject and the power of thought among grades, in all the subjects except arithmetic of the 4th grade, the 4th grade was higher than the 6th grade. And, in all the subjects of the 4th grade and the 6th grade, the correlation that the critical thinking than creative power of thought has with study score was high. 10. As for the correlation order among grades that the study score of each subject and the power of thought have, national language subject was highest in whole sections. And, in case of the 4th grade, arithmetic was lowest. And, in case of the 6th grade, physical education and music were lowest. In case of the 4th grade, the order of the subject of priority order of critical power of thought and creative power of thought emerged almost similarly. And, the 6쇼 grade is relatively similar. But, arithmetic has relatively high order relation with critical power of thought. Then, this is distinguished from the low correlation that the arithmetic has at the 4th grade has.
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