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韓國 과대에 對한 硏究
- 韓國 과대에 對한 硏究
- Other Titles
- (A) Study on Korean Gwadae
- Issue Date
- 교육대학원 가정과교육전공
- 한국; 과대; 복식사
- 이화여자대학교 교육대학원
- Since its appearance as an basic part of our clothes, we had used DAE for the purpose of practical function.
In the beginning the DAE was merely made of leather and fabric As the Bronze and the Iron Age emerge, the leather and fablic belts began to be decorated with metalic ornaments; and the belts thus decorated is called GWADAE.
This GWADAE was introduced to KOREA presumably after CHIN dynasty(晋). In KOREA this was the time the Iron culture evolved under the influence of HAN dynasty(漢) and it brought a development in agriculture, and as a result social infrastructure just started to bulid up.
It is, therefore, presumed the ruling classes that appeared on the basis of wealth employed the GWADAE as an important method to display their dignity.
The shape and characteristic of GWADAE are studied here chronologically first and its role as a part of costume is considered next from cultural and social aspected.
1. Ancient age
The shape of GWADAE can be classified according to the shape of GWAPAN(과판) and the way of its arrangement on belt: they are heart GWAPAN arranged in certail interval, retangular GWAPAN arranged in series and Eliptical GWAPAN arranged a series retan-gular GWAPAN arranged in series shape GWADAE yielded more significant GWADAE including the famous one from GUMGWANCHONG(金冠塚) than the other two.
The GWADAE was made in a way that GWAPANS, retangular metal plates with symetric DANGCHOMUN(唐草文) engraved, are riveted to the surface of leather or fabric belt. Each GWAPAN is linked to YOPAES(腰佩) of various figures.
The GWADAE of ancient time did not have practical use at all. It is, therefore, presumed the GWADAE was intended to bury in tomb.
2. KORYO dynasty
Basically there were two different shapes; JAZADAE(也子帶) and GAKDAE(角帶).
These shapes GWADAE have society in common connected retangular GWAPAN arranged in series.
In the process of government structure, KORYO used the GWADAE as a primary method to indicate the ranks or classes.
Thus its symbolic role as class indicator was emphasized much more compared with the ancient time, and accordingly there appeared more various kinds of GWADAE. Different materials were sellected for GWADAE in compliance with the rank. These materials included jade, cow horn, gold, silver, copper, iron and horn, and it was controlled by a law which rank could wear which material.
However, cnsidering KORYO was influenced by its neighboring countries more than other dynasties and the law of this time was controlled by king and costume, "law of GWADAE" was also frequently changed.
The GWADAE of Yi-dynasty is very similar in its shapes and materials to that of KORYO.
The GWADAE was an indispensible element of official costume at the time and its role as rank indicator was emphasized and abided by more strictly than the previous time.
The system of GWADAE was kept quite strictly, as it was with other laws, from the biginning of Yi-dynasty. It was finalized in KYUNGKUKDAEJUN(經國大典) and lasted until the end of Yi-dynasty.;本 論文은 韓國 과대의 변천을 古代부터 朝鮮時代에걸쳐 종합적으로 연구 분석한 것이다.
帶는 實用的인 機能을 目的으로 생겨나 衣服의 基本構造의 하나가 되었으며 처음에는 皮革帶, 布帛帶를 사용하던 것이 靑銅器, 鐵器文化가 발달되면서 그위에 金屬裝飾을 가하여 과대가 발생한다. 과대는 中國 晋 이후에 우리나라로 전해지는데 우리나라는 漢文化의 영향으로 발달된 鐵器文化가 농업의 발전을 가져와 社會階層을 형성하기 시작한 때였으므로 支配階級에서는 권위표시로 과대를 사용하기 시작하였다.
시대적으로 나누어 살펴보면 다음과 같다.
과의 형태별로 분류해 보면 心葉刑 과, 方形 과, 楕圓形 과로 나누어진다. 그 중에서도 方形 과를 중심으로 이루어진 과대는 金冠塚 出土의 과대를 비롯하여 가장 전형적인 양식을 보인다. 그 형태는 金屬製 方形의 얇은 板에 左右對稱으로 唐革紋을 透彫한 板들을 布帶 또는 革帶에 간격을 두어 못을 박아 고정시키고 그 아래로 心葉形 垂下部를 달고 각종 腰佩를 연결하고 있다.
帶의 형태는 三國時代의 과대보다 좀 더 간단한 것으로 長方形의 과를 연결하여 붙인 也宇帶와 帶의 뒷부분은 長方形의 과를 也字帶와 같이 연결하여 붙이고 앞부분은 心葉形의 과를 떨어뜨려 붙인 角帶로 나누어 볼 수 있다.
과대는 高麗가 官職을 재정비하는 과정에서 階級表示의 상징으로 쓰였다. 따라서 각 계급에 따라 材料에 차이가 있어 玉·犀·金·銀·鋼·鐵·角帶가 있으며 이것의 착용은 法으로 정하여졌다.
朝鮮의 과대형태와 종류는 高麗의 것이 그대로 사용되었다고 볼 수 있으나 이것은 당시의 百官服에서 階級表示의 상징으로 쓰여, 과대의 역할은 다른 어느때보다도 강조된다. 그리하여 經國大典에서 그 제도를 완전히 정비하여 朝鮮전반기를 통하여 그대로 쓰였다고 볼 수 있다.
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