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船遊樂에 관한 考察

船遊樂에 관한 考察
Other Titles
(A) Study on the 'Sunyoorak'
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대학원 무용학과
선유락궁중무용농암 이현보한국무용
이화여자대학교 대학원
The thesis of this term paper aims at the analysis and comparison of the "Sunyoorak" in terms of its contents, forms, and the state of things. "Sunyoorak" is the type of "Hyang-Ak-Jeoung-Jae"(Korean traditional music style) among the Korean traditional court dances and there is the significance in groping the reappearance of the "Court Jeongjae", which is handed down only in documents. Considering the point that there weren't full-scale researches on "Sunyoorak" until nowdays, I hope this paper would be helpful in arranging the scholastic system of the Korean dance history. "Sunyoorak", one of the traditional court dance of "Hyang-Ak-Jeong-Jae ", has been introduced by the "yeo-ryongs"(women who served their male masters) in a palace party on February of king Sunjo's 29th year of the end of Yi's dynasty. Thereafter, this dance continually have positioned as one of the dance work without changes throughout the regime of Yi dynasty. It is said that the existence of "Sunyoorak" goes all the way back to the Shilla dynasty, and has been represented in the "Pal-Kwan-Hae"(Buddhist Festival) of the Koree period. Then, in the later period of Koree dynasty, this Korean traditional dance has been ousted by the rising members of confucists on the reason of the dance containing obscene words and lewdness relations between a male and a female. However, when it reached the period of Yi dynasty, "Sunyoorak" has been reintroduced with the resurrections of "yeoryoungs" and the openings of "Jeoung-Jae" by the disciplined crown prince of the king Sunjo's regime. The content of "Sunyoorak" was purely based on the fisherman's elegant and unsophisticated life and its procedure was led by a commander as he leaves the "cha-sun"(type of a wagon-ship) in the center of the stage. Then the two younger "yeoryongs", six inner dancers, and depending on the various type of feast, about 25 dancers pull the boat and dance in a circle. The "yeoryongs" then perform pleasurely with the music melodies of fisherman's words and with the beat of military song of "Man-Pa-Jeoung-Shik-Ji-Kok". And when the music ends, one of the leading dance commander rings the bell for 3times before he steps out from the stage. There wasn't any new court dance music systems throughout the regime of king Honjong to the king Kojong who were the successors of the king Sunjo. But even though there were some increases and decreases of dancers in all banquet plays, the dance costumes and its equipments of the king Sunjo's period have succeeded with its adherance. "Jeoung-Jae" is conjoined with the songs and usually it doesn't regard the Iyrics as of great importance while the song Iyrics of fisherman's words in "Sunyoo-rak" becomes the standard of value in stuffing the content and its occasions of appearance. The above Iyrics are written in 12 chapters on "Ak-Jang-Ka-Sa", that are expressed in the poetry of Korean characters that metaphorically shows the life of a fisherman who lives in some kind of a limited world. The book of "Ak-Jang-Ka-Sa" contains 9 chapters of fisherman's words which has been improved by Lee Hyun-Boe of the king Yun-San regime. Then after, it has left the conclusion of leaving various types of creations in the fisherman's words. Also investigating the current "Sunyoorak", we can find the dance turning its appearance to the stage from its original performance in the court. It could be said that "Sunyoorak", one of the most colorful "Jeong-Jae" among 50 of them have left some remaining political influences of its period. Considering the numerous number of dancers and its dresses and ornaments, "Sunroorak" may have positioned an important seat in taking charge of the national functions during that period's political situation. As mentioned above, we could say that the court dances, under the influence of Confucias politics, has shown the rule systems and its style of living from the images of music etiquettes. However, due to the Japanese invasion, the use of court dance have disappeared and the "Court Jeong-jae" remains only from the historical records without almost any dancers remaining to produce its originality. These days where there is great popularity in Korean dance, the restoration of the court dance and its dancers is definitely a serious problem. As it is mentioned above, "Sunyoorak" had changes in its form throughout the history from Shilla dynasty but it is one of the 'Hyang-Ak-Jeoung-Jae's" typical dance that has descended with the maintainance of its original form.;本稿는 우리나라 傳統舞踊 중 궁중무용의 鄕樂呈才 양식인 船遊樂에 대하여 그 내용과 형식 및 제반요소들을 비교분석함으로써 文獻에만 전해오는 옛 呈才의 再現을 모색하는데 그 意義를 두었고, 지금까지 船遊樂에 대한 本格的인 硏究가 이루어지지 않았다는 점을 감안하여 韓國舞踊史의 학문적 체계를 정립하는데 보탬이 되고자 한다. 鄕樂呈才로서 현재까지 전해오는 船遊樂은, 李朝末 純祖 29年 2月 進饌에서 女怜들애 의해 呈進되었는데, 그후 王室을 중심으로 演行 반복되는 동안 큰 변화없이 하나의 舞踊作品으로 定立되기에 이르렀다. 또한 船遊樂의 發生起源은 新羅때 유래하여 高麗 八關會에서 여령에 의해 演行되어 오다가, 高麗 末葉부터 신진 儒生들이 鄕樂을 「淫詞」니 「男女相悅之詞」로 몰아 女樂存廢說과 함께 소외되었는데, 李朝末 純祖朝에 이르러 女伶을 부활시키고 呈才를 크게 開演한 孝明世子에 의해 船遊樂은 再生되었다. 춤의 내용 및 절차에 있어서, 그 내용이 지극히 풍류적이고 소박한 漁父의 生活을 노래한 것으로, 절차는 樂師가 彩船을 거느리고 들어가 殿中에 놓고 나오며, 童妓 2人, 內舞 6人, 外舞는 잔치때마다 약간의 변화를 있으나 대략 25人이 줄을 잡고 배를 끌어 당기며 回舞한다. 大吹打인 萬波停息之曲에 맞추어 女伶들이 춤을 추며 漁父詞를 부르는데, 노래가 끝나면 집사기가 들어간다. 이러한 船遊樂을 呈進했던 女伶은 삼국시대의 舞尺을 기원으로 삼는데, 女樂制度는 李朝 世宗朝에 논란이 심해 存廢를 거듭하다가 純祖朝에 內宴은 女樂이, 外宴은 男樂으로 확립되었다. 純祖의 뒤를 이어 憲宗·哲宗·高宗에 이르기까지 새로운 舞樂의 制度는 없고, 宴戱때마다 舞員의 수가 늘기도 줄기도 하지만 純祖때의 舞服·舞技를 그대로 固守한 채 계승하였다. 呈才는 歌唱과 결합된 형태인데 船遊樂의 唱詞「漁父詞」는, 다른 呈才가 唱詞를 중요시 하지 않은 반면에 船遊樂의 發生時期와 내용을 연구하는 가치 기준이 되는데, 모두 12章으로 樂章歌詞에 수록되어 있으며, 江湖의 한정을 漁父의 生活을 비유하여 표현한 漢詩 七言四句로 한글과 섞여있다. 이는 燕山朝 농암 이현보에 의해 改撰된 9章의 漁父詞가 있고, 이후로 여러종류의 漁父詞가 創作되는 결과를 보았다. 現存하는 50여종의 呈才 중에서 가장 화려한 呈才인 船遊樂이 갖는 정치적 영향은 가히 짐작하고도 남음이 있는데, 舞員의 數·儀物·服飾등이 특별하게 많고 화사함에 비추어 보았을때, 그 시대의 정치권 내의 중요 석상에서 국가적 기능을 담당했으리라고 본다. 이렇게 宮中舞踊은 儒敎政治 영향 하에서 禮樂思想을 중심으로 당시의 지배체제와 생활양식을 드러낸다고 할 수 있다. 그러나 日帝의 침략으로 궁중무용의 용도가 없어지면서 우리의 呈才는 기록으로만 傳해지다가 1922년 무동들에 의하여 다시 소생되었다. 韓國舞踊에 대한 관심이 날로 고조되고 있는 요즈음, 우리 궁중무용의 복원과 전승자 문제는 실로 시급한 일이 아닐 수 없다. 이상에서와 같이 船遊樂에은 新羅에서 傳來되어 오는 동안 內容 및 形式面에 있어서 변화는 있었으나, 현재 거의 그 形態를 보존하면서 전해 내려오는 鄕樂呈才의 대표적인 춤의 하나이다.
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