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우리나라 학교급식의 변천과 활성화 방안에 관한 연구

Title
우리나라 학교급식의 변천과 활성화 방안에 관한 연구
Other Titles
(A) Study on the Procession of the School Food Service Program in Korea and its Revita-lization proposal
Authors
朴焌敎
Issue Date
1986
Department/Major
교육대학원 가정과교육전공
Keywords
우리나라학교급식국민식생활가정학교육
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
The propose of the School Food Programs is to provide the school children with nutritious meals each day, to assist them to improve their mental and physical development, to make them under-stand the basic knowledge needed for their normal daily living afterward through improved food patterns, and furthur, to enhance not only the individual, but also the national average physical and health standards. Of course, these objectives can be success-fully achieved through adequate implementation of the National School Food Programs. The major objectives of this study are outlined as follows: 1. Research and observations were ㅡade on the specific characterics and the scope of the School Food Service Program, and its historical background and the course of development In Korea. 2. The degree of its influence for the general primary school education. 3. Research and analysis were made based on the various data and current situations in regard with its effects for the development of the national food consuming pattern. This research provides indications that the School Food Service Programs have played a leading role for the development of the national physical standards and the improvement of the food patterns. And therefore, this study also includes the relevant suggestions for the revitalization of the programs. To mention briefly the research methods and its contents, references were made with relevant domestic and international documents, administrative and legislative supporting system for the effective implementation of the Programs as well as every available research data and materials. Through intensive analysis, the course of progression and development of the Programs since its beginning provides a picture on how much it has been accepted and reasonable conceptions formed. It also includes improvement suggestions by eliminating such deficient factors as found in the institutional functions in the area of the administrative and financial supporting system. Emphasis were also given to define more clearly the role the Program performes through rightful evaluation of the advancement of school education and the improvement of the national food pattern effected by the implementation of the School Food Service Programs. The major objective, the Revitalization Proposal for the School Food Service Programs, is derived from the above efforts of research and analysis. The outline of the study is as follows: 1. In 1953, the Korean War was ceased and the nation faced severe economical difficulties. Under such circumstances, the School Food Service Program in Korea started with such relief foods for the war refugees as non-fat dried milk, con or wheat flour and cooking oil, etc. donated by the International Relief Organizations, namely UNICEF, CARE and US-AID. This program serving the primary school children with such reief foods continued for about 20 years until 1972, and in 1973, when the International Relief Organizations disengaged to provide such relief foods, the Program turned to self-supporting type encouraging active parent involvement, with partial Government subsidies. The precession of the School Food Service Programs can be divided Into four major periods; Relief (1953-1972), Self-supportive (1973-1977), System-establishment (1973-l983), system-development (1984- ). In reviewing the procession and development of the Programs by each period, special attention was raid to the particular areas of food contents and administrative and financial aspects thereof. Upon summarization of these periodic re-views, this study deals with special and valuable projects that were implemented during each period and highly contributed to the Program development. 2. As a result of the implementation of the School Food Service Program in Korea, many positive effects have been found in the primary school education, notably in the field of physical growth, improvement of achievement and personality cultivation. 3. This study covers more detail assessment in regard with the effects of the Program on the school education activities and the improvement of the family food patterns. Although it is limited and partial, the Program implementation has greatly contributed to the improvement of the children's habit of food-takes, understanding of the food and living, and the manners, attitudes and sanitary cares. It has also greatly affected to the transformation of parents' concern and attitudes towards the improvement of daily meals as well as the national food pattern, and eventually provided motivations for the increased farm production of nutritious foodstuffs and reasonable food consumption. Finally, in its Revitalization Proposal of the School Food Service Programs in Korea, this study gives its major emphasis on the part of the Government, which requires a firm policy decision to be made by the relevant authorities in coordination with related agencies in order to secure necessary funds for the successful implementation of the School Food Service Programs; this includes such endeavours as to expand the Program participants, consolidating the operations, strengthening the Public Relations activities, and establishing guiding directions, and thus providing desirable conditions for the Programs. The eventual objective of this study is to propose the ways and means for mobilizing every available elements in the effort to attain the goals of educating and train-ing the healthy and competent personnel manpower, and stabilizing the demand and supply of foods through adequate coordination of national food production and consumption.;學校給食의 目的은 成長期에 있는 兒童의 成長敎育에 必要한 營養供給의 적정을 期함으로써 健全한 心身의 發達을 圖謀하고 向後 食生活 營爲에 必要한 基礎的인 知識의 習得과 더불어 바람직한 食習慣을 涵養함으로써 健康增進을 펴하는 한편 나아가서는 體力向上 및 食生活을 改善하는 데에 있다. 本硏究는 첫째, 學校給食事業이 어떤 特性과 範圍를 가지고 있으며 우리 나라에서는 어떤 歷史的 背景과 變遷過程을 거쳤는가를 考察하고, 둘째, 學校給食이 國民學校敎育에 미친 영향과 세째, 學校給食이 우리 나라 國民食生活에 미친 影響을 各種 硏究資料와 現實態를 통해 調査·分析 提示하고, 이와 같이 學校給食이 國民體力向上과 食生活改善에 一翼을 擔當하여 先導的役割을 하는 만큼 이의 活性化 方案을 提示하는 데 目的을 두었다. 그 硏究方法과 硏究內容은 國內外 文獻調査와 學校給食을 推進하기 爲한 行政 및 法規의 制度的 支援狀況 調査와 學校給食에 關한 旣 調査硏究資料의 收集分析 및 우리 나라 學校給食 實施 以後의 그 變遷過程을 通하여 학교 급식의 올바른 槪念을 定立하고 同時에 그 發展狀況을 把握하며, 現行 學校給食의 制度上에 있어서의 行·財政上의 모순점을 찾아내어 그 改善點을 提示하는 한편 그간의 학교 급식 實施를 通하여 나타난 학교 급식 그 自體가 學校敎育과 國民食生活改善에 미친 영향을 考察하여 學校給食의 役割을 糾明하는 한편 앞으로의 學校給食의 活性化 方案을 摸索하는 데 主眼點을 두었다. 硏究結果를 要約해 보면, 첫째, 우리 나라 學校給食은 變遷에 있어서, 그 始初는 6·25動亂後 經濟事情이 어려운 時期인 1953年에 戰災兒童의 救護給食을 爲하여 國際 兒童基金(UNICEF), 世界民間救護協會(CARE), 美國國際開發處(USAID) 등의 機關이 支援하는 양곡(脫脂粉乳를 비롯한 옥수수가루, 食油, 小麥粉 등)으로 國民學校 兒童에게 無償給食을 實施한 것이 그 嚆矢였으며 그 后 1972年까지 約 20年間 外國援助에 依한 救護給食이 實施되었고 1973年度에 이르러 外援이 終了됨에 따라 政府支援에 依한 학부모 參與를 誘導하는 自立形態의 급식으로 방향을 전환하여 오늘에 이르고 있다. 우리 나라 학교 급식의 變遷 過程은 크게 나누어 救護 給食期(1953-1972), 自立 給食期(1973-1977), 制度 確立期(1973-1983), 制度 擴充期(1984-)의 四 段階로 나눌 수 있다. 이 硏究에서는 各段階別로 學校給食의 여러 가지 고려해야 할 사항중 特히 給食 內容面과 學校 給食에 대한 行·財政面을 核心으로 하여 變遷 過程을 살펴 보고 이를 종합한 후 各段階別 特色 事業 및 學校 給食에 특히 貢憲度가 높았던 부분을 재검토 해 보았다. 둘째, 學校 給食이 우리 나라 國民學校 敎育에 미친 영향을 보면 兒童의 身體 成長과 學業成積向上, 人性發達面에 좋은 영향을 미치고 있음이 나타났고, 셋째, 學校 給食이 兒童의 食生活 習慣面, 食事禮節 및 態度 改善 食生活 衛生習慣 改善에의 寄與 등 食生活 意識과 態度의 變化를 비롯하여, 食生活에 대한 학부모의 理解와 態度 變化 등으로 國民 食生活 改善에 미친 영향이 현저하였고, 食糧의 增産 促進 및 合理的인 消費生活에도 좋은 영향이 미치고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 이상을 토대로 學校 給食의 活性化 方案을 提示하였는데 그 要旨를 열거해 보면 政府는 關係 部處의 協力下에 學校 給食 財源 確保에 果敢한 結斷으로 投資를 增强하여 첫째, 學校 給食 實施 對象을 확대하고, 둘째, 學校給食 運營의 內實化를 期하고 세째, 學校給食에 對한 弘報活動의 强化하며 넷째, 學校給食 指導方向의 定立 등 學校給食의 諸般要件을 整備하여 健康하고 有能한 人材育成과 國家食糧의 消費·生産 등 食糧需給의 원활을 기하는 方案講究에 努力을 傾注해야 함을 提案하였다.
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