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文字未解得兒에 대한 原因分析 硏究

Title
文字未解得兒에 대한 原因分析 硏究
Other Titles
(A) Study on Illiterate Children : Around Lewer Grade Children of Elementary School
Authors
孫庚珣
Issue Date
1984
Department/Major
교육대학원 국어교육전공
Keywords
문학미해득아원인분석국민학교저학년
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
강윤호
Abstract
Literacy, the most fundamental skill for learning activities, is one of the primary learning tasks which should be achieved during the first grade elementary school days. The purpose of this study is to provide positive materials for teaching illiterate children who can be found even in the middle school. For this purpose this study investigated and analyzed what their problems and troubles are any why they school remain illiterate. The subjects were lower grade children of elementary schools in Seoul. The degree of their literacy and illiteracy, and the variables related to their literacy and illiteracy were investigated. The solutions for t b a were also examined and analyzed through investigating illiterate children's emotional characteristics, structural home enviroments and their parents' and teachers' reactions. The strongest element affecting the illiterate Children's Understanding letters is a teacher. The next ones are family members such as mothers, fathers and so on. For most of children, understanding letters before entering schools makes them interested in and confident of their learning. But for some children it can be the cause of their lack of interest. So most teachers hope that children only with the abilities of undertanding easy letters and numbers enter their schools. More than half of the illiterate children didn't receive any education before entering school and only very small portion of 2.9% of illiterate children's parents have ardent en thusiasm for their education. 1.5% of their parents are even negative, and only 80.4% of their mothers take care of them warmly and attentively. One third of the illiterate Children believe that they couldn't learn to understand letters because their parents didn't attend to them. Half of them are lacking in self-confidence, and one sixth of them have completely give up learning to understand letters. emotional behavior characteristics, one seventh of illiterate In the point of view of children are leading their daily lives cheerfully and merrily. But the rest of them are rough, aggressive and self-assertive, or on the contracy they are very devoted, sacrifical, silent, diffident and left out in the cold by their classmates. It can be said that such children's inadaptational behavior characteristics have relations with inadaptional children in the school and in the society. The variable of children in illiteracy amounts to one third including one fourth of lack of interest and enthusiasm as academic self concepts and those of home invironments amount to more than half of the total. 3.5% of the illiterate children should be sent to special schools to solve their problems, but 35.6% of them think that they can solve their problems through their own efforts, 27.2% of them through their parents understanding, and 33.6% of them through changing the class activities. But it is, dangerous that 61.6% of teachers believe literate and illiterate children's studying together doesn't give any help to each other. Since their studying together helpful to none of them, illiterate children can't avoid being isolated in the class and suffering from it seriously. To ascertain their existence in such a situation, they should be "devoted and sacrificial" or "rude and aggressive". If they are weak- minded, they cannot but always keep silent, beisolated and give their ways to others. Illiterate children lead their lives in sorrow and anger as beings isolated and forgotton in the uneducational family environments, between indifferent parents, and they are buried in the group. They only go up to the higher grades without attaining any learning achievements in the shadow of clever and self-confident children who monopoly teachers' attention. The government, the society, the educational illiterate children and learning disabled children. It can't be overlooked still more that easy-going ways of thinking and irresponsible words and behaviors put sufferings, hatred and sorrow in the minds of such children who a reliable to be feeble-minded and suffered easily. Only warm love, and affectionate goze and hands are to be given to them.;學習活動을 위한 가장 基礎的인 技能인 文字解得은 國民學校 一學年에서 習得되어야만 하는 主要 學習課題이다. 그러나 中學生에서까지 發見되는 文字未解得兒들은 어떤 문제점을 갖고 있고, 어떤 이유에서 未解得兒로 남게 되는지, 그 原因을 조사, 分析하여 그 實態를 把握함으로써, 文字未解得兒를 위한 敎育에 實證的 資料를 提供하려는 데에 그 硏究目的을 두었다. 서울市內 國民學校 低學年 學生을 대상으로, 1, 2, 3學年 兒童들의 文字解得의 程度, 文字解得과 未解得에 관련된 變因을 分析하였으며, 未解得兒의 情意的 特徵, 家庭의 構造環境, 父母의 態度와 敎師의 반응 等을 通해 文字未解得에 對한 解決方案 등을 檢討·分析하였다. 文字解得兒의 文字解得에 가장 큰 영향을 미치는 것은 敎師이며 다음이 엄마·아빠 等 집안식구들이다. 就學前 文字解得이 많은 兒童에게 學業에 흥미를 갖고 自信感을 길러주나, 일부 아동들에게는 오히려 흥미 결여의 原因이 되기 때문에 대부분의 교사들은 숫자나 쉬운 글자 정도의 해득이 된 상태에서 就學하기를 원하고 있다. 文字未解得兒의 過半數는 就學前에 전혀 아무런 敎育을 받지 않았으며, 未解得兒 父母 가운데 극소수인 2.9%만이 높은 敎育熱을 갖고 있다. 1.5%의 부모는 오히려 否定的이며, 아동의 시중을 들어주는 따뜻한 엄마의 손길은 80.4%이다. 未解得兒들을 1/3이 집에서 돌봐주지 않기 때문에 文字解得이 안 되었다고 믿고 있으며, 1/2이 自信感이 缺如되어 있고, 1/6가량은 文字解得을 아예 抛棄하고 있다. 未解得兒의 情意的 行動特性에서 1/7 정도는 명랑하고 쾌활하다. 그 나머지는 난폭하고 충격적이며 자기 고집만 부리거나, 반대로, 헌신적이고 奉仕的이며 말이 없고 고립되어 있으며 늘 양보만 하고 自信이 없으며 따돌림을 받고 있다. 이러한 未解得兒의 否適應의 行動特性은 學校 否適應兒, 社會 否適應兒와 連繫性을 지닌다고 할 수 있겠다. 文字未解得兒 원인의 學生 變因은 1/3가량이며, 學問的 自我槪念인 흥미·열의 缺如가 1/4에 달하고 있고, 家庭環境 要因이 과반수를 차지하고 있다. 未解得兒의 解決方案으로는 3.5%를 特殊學校에 보내야하나, 35.6%는 本人의 勞力이, 27.2%는 父母의 理解와 함께, 33.6% 는 學校 授業의 變化로 解決할 수 있다고 보았다. 그러나 敎師의 61.1 %가 文字解得兒와 未解得兒가 함께 공부하는 것이 서로에게 도움을 주지 않는다는 생각을 하는 것은 위험스러운 일이다. '본인과 다른 아동 모두에게 도움이 되지 않기' 때문에 敎育現場에서 未解得兒들은 疎外될 수밖에 없어 그들은 심한 타격을 입게 된다. 소외된 교실에서 未解得兒가 자신의 存在를 확인하기 위해서는 '헌신적이고 봉사적'이거나 '난폭하고 공격적'이어야 하며, 마음이 약한 兒童은 '말이 없고 고립'되며 '늘 양보'만 하지 않을 수 없는 것이다. 非敎育的인 家庭環境과 무관심한 부모 사이에서, 그리고 集團 속에 파묻혀 버린 敎室에서 文字未解得兒는 疎外당하고 잊혀진 存在로 슬픔과 분노 속에 實存하고 있다. 영리하고 自信感이 넘쳐 敎師의 귀여움을 독차지하는 우수한 아동의 그늘에서 未解得兒들은 아무 것도 學習된 것이 없는 상태에서 學年만 높아지고 있다. 國家는, 社會는, 敎育은, 學校는, 父母는, 더군다나 敎師는 더 이상 이들 文字未解得兒 나아가서는 學習不振兒를 放置해서는 안된다. 安易한 思考와 무책임한 言行으로 여리고 쉽게 상처받는 兒童들의 마음에 아픔과 두려움과 미움과 분노를 심어서는 더더욱 안된다. 그들에게는 따뜻한 사랑과 애정있는 눈길과 손길만을 주어야 하는 것이다.
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